They have given up social ties. They accept five major vows. They go for alms and only take limited food. They drink boiled water only. They do pratikraman twice a day. They walk bear feet. All nuns wear white clothes. Some monks were white clothes while some wear no clothes. Digambar monks and nun take food and water once a day and from one place.
During raining season because of plenty of water there are lot more bugs and green vegetation growing. Plus there will be water all over on the ground also. So to avoid, injury to even bugs and insects and vegetable life they stay four months in one place. and that is why they observe Chaturmas.
Sthavar-Kalpi wear white clothes, have a Muhapati, have a Rajoharan (holy broom) and carry wooden bowls for accepting the food. They accept alms strictly observing their rules. They stay in an upashraya free from worldly activities.
A Jain Svetambar monks and nuns get food (alm) by begging known as gochari. He/she goes to various houses, and accepts only acceptable food that was not made for them but was made for householders themselves. They take food in a very small quantity from different houses so that the householders do not have to cook more food again. A Jain Svetambar monks and nuns get food twice a day.
A Jain Digambar monks and nuns get food only one time a day. They take food in one place. Monks accept food in standing position while nuns take food sitting down. They do not eat or drink once it is over.
They observe nine restrictions of Brahmcharya. They do not keep anything other than necessary clothes and vessels. They do not take food or water after sunset until sunrise. They bear twenty-two Parishahas.
1) Living Beings - Souls (Jivas - Atmas) 2) Non Living Things (Ajivas) 3) Results of Good Deeds (Punya) 4) Results of Bad Deeds (Papa) 5) Inflow of Karmas (Asrava) 6) Bondage of Karmas (Bandh) 7) Stoppage of Karmas (Samvar) 8) Shedding of Karmas (Nirjara) 9) Liberation from Karmas (Moksha)
There are two kinds of jivas: 1) The liberated souls, the muktatma, the soul that is bodiless and has been once and for all freed from the bondage of all the karmas and cycle of births and deaths. 2) The non-liberated souls, samsari atma, the soul that has a body and is caught in the bondage of karmas and cycle of births and deaths.
One can as simple a vow as he/she will do so and so for such a time. For example he/she decided to take vow of not eating or drinking for next two hours or to tell only truth for next two hours. Or, one may take minor (anuvrats) as householders. Or, one may take majr vows as monks (sadhus) and nuns (Sadhvis).
Before we take a vow or agree to take a vow one should ask ourselves that will we be able to keep the vow being taken. We should not take any vow under pressure when we realize or know that it will be difficult to keep it. If we break a vow then, yes, we get un un-auspicious karmas.
Any time we break a vow is not a desirous thing to happen or do. Anytime vow is broken it will bring some un-auspicious karmas. If vow is broken by accident that is without our intention to break it then we will get minimal bad karmas and their bondage will not be strong.
Atichar (Violations) are: 1) Binding any creature and putting it in a prison house or a pound-house, 2) The beating any living beings, 3) Cutting down trees or plant or any parts of any living beings, 4) Exterminating your house or using pesticides in farm, 5) Yelling or bullying other people.
Atichar (violations) are: 1) Blaming, defaming or saying harsh words to others out of undue haste and carelessness, 2) Revealing secrets of others or working as a spy, 3) Revealing spouse"s secrete or backbiting each other, 4) Misleading persons by giving ill advice or false preaching, 5) Preparing false or forged documents or maintaining false accounts.
Atichar (violations) are: 1) Buying stolen goods, 2) Teaching the art of stealing or giving the shelter to the thieves, 3) Doing anything against law of the land, 4) Keeping false weights and measures and wrong balances, 5) Giving inferior goods after showing superior quality or even adulterating.
Atichar (violations) are: 1) Having sexual relationship with underage spouse, 2) Having premarital or extramarital sex, 3) Looking intensely with sexual desires at the body of a woman or a man and express sexual desire, gestures, or making passes, 4) To engage in arranging marriages of other than your own children, 5) To be engrossed in the thoughts of sexual pleasures.
This vow is to determine the limits to the acquisition of wealth, belongings and to their use and can also include social positions. If it is not convenient to limit the value of each item, then we should limit the total numbers. We should not cross or adjust the limits knowingly or unknowingly in any way.
Atichar (Violations) are: 1) Having the excessive money, gold, silver, etc., 2) having too many toys, cloths, furnitures, cameras, televisions, etc., 3) Buying too much land, expensive houses or cars, 4) Holding positions in many community organizations, or for a long period, 5) Keeping many servents.
This vow is to limit and determine the extent to which one can go and return; and the area within which one can move or travel about. We should restrict or limit such distance, and thus, stop extra sins of traveling.
Atichar (Violations) are: 1) Crossing the limit in upward direction, 2) Crossing the limit in downward direction, 3) Crossing the limit in east, west, north or south directions, 4) Curtailing the limit in one direction and to extend the limit of other direction, 5) Proceeding in spite of realizing that the limit is over.
Atichar (Violations) are: 1) Consuming raw vegetables (sachit things), 2) Consuming food connected with raw vegetables or rawgrain, 3) Consuming some thing, which is partially cooked vegetables or flour, etc., 4) Eating halfcooked things like roasted corn, etc., 5) Consuming such things in which there is less to eat and more to waste (sugarcane).
Atichar (Violations) are: 1) Reading cheap literature and watching sensual or violent shows or movies, 2) Making such bodily actions and gestures as laughing; provocative laughter, acting and making faces to insult others, 3) Engaging in meaningless talk; gossiping and making unnecessary stir up, 4) Manufacturing and or keeping weapons and devices to cause violence, 5) Hoarding things relating to worldly and sensual enjoyment.
In this vow one has to be seated at one place for 48 minutes. In this, a person renounces all sinful activities. This helps us in remaining calm and steady i.e., we remain free from likes and dislikes of the world. During this time, we should do only religious activities and should abstain from attending to things of household life mentally, verbally and physically.
Atichar (Violations) are: 1) letting bad thoughts enter the mind, 2) Uttering bad or harsh words, 3) Moving around the body, or leaning against the wall, yawning, sleeping etc., 4) Being careless, 5) Finishing before the actual time is up.
Atichar (Violations) are: 1) Getting things from outside the limit, 2) Sending a person outside the limit and getting it, 3) Asking for the things which are outside the limit area by calling, coughing, etc., 4) Asking for the things beyond the limit by making their forms or figures, 5) Asking for the article beyond the limit by throwing a pebble or other signs.
In this vow one is renouncing eating, drinking water, and thoughts related to household activities and being immersed in spiritual reflections for 24 hours or a longer period. Paushadh enhances the speed of spiritual efforts and provide strength to shravaks.
In paushadha vrat, a person spends 36 hours starting from the previous evening and next full day till early morning next day in spiritual activities, religious readings, swathyaya, and meditation. During this time, one usually does not take any food or drink, does not have any sexual desires, or beautify the body, etc. They stop all inauspicious activities of the mind, body, and speech.
Atichar (Violations) are: 1) Making the bed carelessly, without looking for any living body or not looking properly, 2) Not sweeping the place for making bad or sweeping it carelessly, 3) Not seeing the place to dispose the waste properly or seeing it carelessly, 4) Not sweeping the place to dispose waste properly or sweeping it carelessly, 5) Not following this paushadh vow in a proper manner.
This vow is to give, with a feeling of selflessness, love and respect, the food, water and other such things necessary for existence to sadhus, sadhvies, shravaks, shravikas, or any needy people or animals.
Atichar (violations) are: 1) Giving or offering any unsuitable food to sadhus or sadhvis, 2) Giving or offering meat, poultry or sea food or any flash to anyone, 3) Giving something which is spoiled, fermented, stale, etc., 4) Being lazy to give personally, 5) Bragging about the offering given.
Anitya bhavana means contemplating about the transitory nature of things around us. We must accept that everything in this world is transient and perishable and nothing is permanent and therefore nothing will last forever and we could have losses during our lifetime. The loss could happen from what we may possess or among our family members or friends and even foes. Therefore, it is fruitless to mourn or loose mental peace over the loss of such transient relationship but we should keep ourselves calm. Once we accept this fact then if and when we suffer a loss in the form of material things or family members or friends then even in such adverse situation instead of feeling sorrow or being sad we will keep ourselves calm because we know that nothing could be permanent.
We must reflect that everything around us is changing and nothing remains or is going to be permanent. A person was a child first and then became a young adult. Same young adult became man and as the time passed by he also became an old man and ultimately he died. In same manner father, mother, brother sister, spouse and children die too. So how long will stay this relationship? 15, 25, 35, 50 or ….. years. So what happens after that? How what is the use of spending our valuable time after such relationship? Then where should we be spending our time? Only thing which is permanent is our soul. So we must work towards making it purer. Therefore, we should reflect on spending time after permanent things than transient things.
Once we realize that nothing can last forever including possessions or personal relationship then if and when we suffer a loss in the form of material things or family members or friends then even in such adverse situation instead of feeling sorrow or being sad we will keep ourselves calm because we know that nothing could be permanent.
Yes, it does. Anitya Bhavana reminds us that everything is perishable including not only what we have but also our family members and friends. Usually loss causes our passion to go up but once we accept that nothing can last forever we will accept the losses very easily and stay calm. Therefore, contemplating on Anitya Bhavana will make our resolve stronger and stronger.
The death of family member is a loss but once we accept that everybody dies sometime and no one can live forever we will take this loss in much calmer manner. We should reflect on Anitya Bhavana which reminds us that everything in this world is transient we will not feel so bad but rather face the situation with courage and peace in our mind.
Anitya Bhavana helps us understand the true relationship between the body and the soul. It reminds us that we will have to leave the body sometime so instead of spending too much time after the body, which is perishable, rather spend time for the uplift of the soul, which is permanent.
Asharan Bhavna means thinking that no other individual can provide us lasting refuge.Nothing external can offer the permanent refuge. When death occurs even the soul has to leave the body. There is no one who can save the jiva from this happening. Wealth, and family, etc., would stay behind and you have to face the future by yourself. So instead of taking refuge in false thing take refuge which will stay with you and that is your religion. It will guide you to go right path. Take refuge who teaches this path so it will be help and time will be spent wisely doing something worthwhile.
Once we realize that no one give us protection including possessions or personal relationship then if and when we suffer a loss in the form of material things or family members or friends then even in such adverse situation instead of feeling sorrow or being sad we will keep ourselves calm because we know no one else but our own actions can protect us.
During loss when we expected someone else to protect us, we should tell ourselves that what is happening to us our own doing. No one else can change or protect us from that. So, rather than whining accept the fact and stay calm and get over it peacefully.
In the cycle of different worldly lives (samsar) the mother can become a wife; a wife can become a mother; and an enemy can become a friend; and a friend can become a foe, etc.How fruitless is this samsar, where relationships go on changing. Therefore, I should not develop bondage for others.
In this Samsar (worldly life) the Jiva (soul) is born alone and dies alone. It accumulates the Karmas alone and it experiences the fruits of its Karmas alone, too. Who belongs to whom in this world? Though jiva is living in the middle of the crowd, he is absolutely alone. Therefore, give up the attachment for others.
The body and the soul are different and separate from each other. The body is inert, but my soul is the very embodiment of consciousness. The soul is imperishable. It will not die. The body; of course, burns and becomes ashes. Agonies afflict only the body and not to the soul. I am not the body. The body is not mine.
This body is made up of impure substances like blood, urine, and fecal material, etc. I will discard my attachments for such body and engage myself in self‑discipline, renunciation and spiritual endeavours. The body is made up of the substance that decays very easily.
Thinking of taking the action to stop the inflow of karmas.
Samvar means blocking of inflow of karmas. One must think of the tremendous benefits of each Samvar like Samiti, Gupti, Yati‑dharma, etc. One must carry out these activities to reduce the inflow of karma.
By performing austerities, we can destroy our Karmas.There are such twelve kinds of austerities. Therefore, we should think of when can we perform such austerities to destroy our karmas so that we can be liberated.
Think of the creation of the fourteen Rajlok (universe) which are made up of the substances which are subject to the law of origin, existence and destruction. This whole universe is filled with jivas and pudgals.
Thinking of developing faith in the dharmik (religious) principles.
One should think that it is hard to attain human life, healthy body, dharma, and to act according to dharma, etc. It is even more difficult to develop a true and abiding faith in the dharmik doctrines. We should think to make our faith strong and stronger forever.
How much have we been benefited by the Jinasand theirdoctrines! This life is possible only if there is dharma. We have attained comforts and happiness by the benevolence of dharma.It would be difficult to live without dharma. One should think of dharma from the practical points of view.
Think of having heartfelt affection, regard and esteem for people who are superior to us in virtues, knowledge and ability. Not to entertain such feelings as jealousy and envy; and not to look at anyone maliciously and with a sinister feeling. Think to be cheerful and happy at the sight of virtuous people; and to express cordial happiness on seeing such people.
Think to treat with indifference those people who even after realization and knowing the right from wrong, arrogantly and obstinately refuse to walk on the path of righteousness. Think that may be one day they may improve, but I do not have to be affected by their behavior. Think of being in equanimity even in such circumstances.
External austerities are those austerities which when performed can be noticed by other people. May be there is another definition that external austerities are to help us to train our mind (Bhav) through the control of our body and other activities.
Internal austerities are those austerities which when performed, can not be noticed by other people. May be there is another definition that internal austerities are to help us to control our mind (Bhav) which is in disarray by our inner weaknesses, desires or passions.
Anasan means fasting, renouncing food and water, etc., for a day, for many days or throughout the life. One day of total fasting is called upavas. Fasting completely until death is done when life is close to an end. Such fasting is considered very auspicious and is called Physical Anasan.
Bhav Anasan refers to the total control of our inner desires for a short or a long time. If this austerity is cultivated then only will we be able to strive for spiritual uplift.
Unodari means eating less than what one’s hunger is. The Jain dharma prescribes thirty-two handfuls of food per day and in order to perform this austerity, one may eat a few handfuls less than the prescribed amount.
Bhav Unodari means to limit our desires to some extent. It may be more difficult to do this than to control them totally, but once this starts then we will limit our desires for things in our daily life.
Ras Parityag means to renounce tasty foods which one likes very much. It can be done partially or in total for short time or prolonged period of time.
Bhav Ras Parityag is more difficult to perform than the other austeritiesbecause in this we limit our most desired thoughts. An austerity of this nature will help us to control our passions even in the most tempting situations.
In Pratisanlinata one controls all types of senses in order to prevent pleasant and unpleasant temptations. In order to perform this austerity one may stay in isolation for one or more nights.
In Bhav Pratisanlinata one controls oneself from lying, telling the distorted truth, or from participating in sensual activities. Thus this austerity helps to control passions like anger, pride, deception, and greed.
In Prayaschit, one asks for forgiveness for the various errors of commission and omission, the faults and sins committed knowingly or unknowingly. This austerity may be performed in the presence of a monk or nun or can be done alone. Prayaschit helps us to reflect upon ourselves in a way that leads to self correction. Even for a small fault we begin to say “Michchami Dukkadam.”
Vaiyavachch means serving religious teachers, ascetics, virtuous people, sadhus, colleagues, and companions with devotion. One should especially render services to the sick and weak. Though this austerity seems to be external activity it makes a person humble and serves the purpose of overcoming ego and hatred.
Svadhyay means to study scriptures or can also mean to understand the self. Through study we try to answer the questions: who am I? Who should I be? Through Svadhyay we realize that a soul is a pure thing. This will lead us to contemplate on the question: what am I doing in this body? Thus, study will lead you to be a pure soul. This study is divided into five levels:
When one starts reading the scriptures it is called Vachana.
While reading some doubts may arise and trying to resolve them is called Prachana.
After understanding what is right and contemplating on it is called Anupreksha.
After realizing what is right, one should contemplate on it again and again so one can stay in focus. This repetition is called Amnaya.
After learning what self is one should teach others the same. This is known as Dharmopadesh.
All five of above are external svadhyay, but they will lead us to do internal svadhyay about the self. Thus, one will acquire right perception and right knowledge which will lead to right conduct and will open up the path to ultimate liberation.
Dhyan means concentration of thought. This concentration could arise from intense passions like attachment, lust, or animosity or from the search for the truth and from absolute detachment towards worldly affairs.
Dhyan is divided into four categories:
In arta dhyan a person reflects on the i) loss of dear ones (Ishta Viyog),ii) development of a new relationship with an undesirable or unpleasant person (Anishta Samyog), iii) physical illness (Roga chinta) and iv) future planning (Agrasocha or Nidanartha).
In roudra dhyan one is absorbed in taking total revenge for some damage or loss caused by others. There are four types: i) Hisanubahndhi, ii) Mrishanubadhi, iii) Steynubandhi, and iv) Samrakshanubandhi.
Both arta and roudra dhyan lead to accumulation of bad karmas and therefore art and roudra dhyan should be avoided.
Dharma dhyan means reflecting on the ways and means towards realization of self.
Shukla dhyan means reflecting on the purity of the soul.
Dharma dhyan and shukla dhyan lead to the removal of karmas. Therefore, for the purpose of nirjara we shall contemplate on dharma dhyan and shukla dhyan. If contemplation on dharma dhyan is at the highest level then we can completely destroy Mohniya karma and within 48 minutes of the destruction of Mohaniya Karma, Jnanavarniya, Darshanavarniya and Antaräy Karmas are also destroyed and one becomes a Kevali.
One takes food only once in one sitting. Food should be boiled and not have any spices, milk, curd, ghee, oil, and raw vegetables. One drinks only boiled water during the daytime.It is better if one can do the chauvihar or the tivihar the night before.
Upavas means fasting for twenty-four hours from the sunrise today to the sunrise on the next day, during which one does not take any kind of food or liquids but may drink the boiled water. It is preferred if one can do the chauvihar or the tivihar the night before.
a) Tivihar upavas ‑ During this, one does not take any food or drink any liquids except the boiled water only.
b) Chauvihar upavas - During this, one does not take any food or liquids during the day or the night.
During every year, one does ayambils for 9 days starting on the bright fortnight either on 6th or 7th day in Ashwin and Chaitra months for a period of four and one-half years. Some people may take only one kind of food grain on a given day.
Mithyatva-drishthi Gunasthanak means the stage of false‑vision or delusion. In this stage one accepts right as wrong and wrong as right. One does not have faith in fundamentals (nine tattvas) taught by Jina.
Saswadan Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak means the stage of having tasted righteousness. In this stage the soul has once tasted righteousness ‑ the right path, but is returning from there for want of faith in fundamentals (nine tattavas).
Mishra Gunasthanak means the mixed stage. In this Gunasthanak, sometimes a person has the desire for samyaktva and sometimes not. Person’s intellect always keeps swinging and oscillating between the two points of having and not having faith like a pendulum.
Avirati Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak means unable to take a vows. One has faith in the fundamentals (nine tattvas) as taught by Jina. One develops the right vision about liberation of the soul but in this stage, he/she can not perform any austerities and can not renounce worldly things. He reflects on the soul but can not attempt to purify it.
Deshvirati Gunasthanak means partial renunciation. Desh means some aspect. Virati means renunciation. In this gunasthanak he/she observes a partial renunciation, according to his ability. He accepts upto the twelve vows and some other austerities.
Pramatta means pramad or Careless. Samyati means Sadhu. In Pramatta Samyati Gunasthanak they renounce the world totally and become sadhu or sadhvi, but they are not always careful of their conduct in their spiritual efforts.
Apramatta means Careful. Apramatta Samyati Gunasthanak means sadhus and sadhvis confirm to the principles of self‑discipline, and do not entertain any sinful thoughts nor commit any kind of sinful actions.They keep away from pride, sensual enjoyments, passions, and gossip in all the forms, mentally, verbally, and physically.
Nivritti‑badar Gunasthanak means in this stage they are free from gross passions. This stage is also called, Apoorva Karan. In this stage sadhus/sadhvis are completely free from the gross passions. Their souls attain purity and perfection to a vast extent. They control their attachments, hatred and infatuation to the maximum extent.
Upashant Moh Gunasthanak means the stage of suppressed passions.It is delusive stage of being Vitrag because the passions (Kashaya) are not destroyed but they are suppresses. Passions surface within one antah muhurt of reaching to this stage and when that happens the soul dives downward in spiritual stages.
Kshina Moha Gunasthanak means the stage of passionless.When reaching to this stage the soul has gotten rid of all the passions. The soul is called Vitragi. The has no attachment or hatred towards anybody or to any situation.
Sayogi Kevali Gunasthanak means the stage of Kevaljnan, Kevaldarshan, and infinite power. Sayogi means activities of mind, voice and body. In this stage, the soul becomes completely free from all soul polluting karmas and, therefore, there is no bondage of karmas even though there are activities going on.
Ayogi Kevali Gunasthanak means the stage of being totally free from any activity.The Ayogi means no activities. This is the final stage of the soul’s progress. This stage is of very short period and during which the rest of karmas which are remaining to the soul are also removed and the soul is liberated forever.
It is the highest state of spiritual thought activity in first gunasthanak when a person begins to realize wrong belief and gives up severe ( Anantanubandhi - error-feeding) passions and ignorance, and obtains the right vision is called Apurva Karan.
In Anivritti karan wiping out the operation of wrong belief whose influence has been reduced to 48 minutes by Apurv karan and he/she gets the right vision. If Anivritti karan does not happen at this time then soul falls back to full influence of wrong belief.
In Mithaytva Gunasthanak, even though there is no realization between wrong and right, one knows things around him/her. For example, on a very cloudy day even though we may not see the sun, we cannot say that there is no sun, because the power of light, which penetrates the clouds, enables us to see objects around us. In the same way the soul is able to exhibit some power of knowledge so it cannot be called zero gunasthanak.
In Pramat Sanyati, one either completely wipes out or suppresses four types of severe, moderate and mild passions, and three of minute Darshan Mohniya karmas. During this stage, there is some kind of carelessness in observing vows.
In Kshapak Shreni, various karmas are removed forever from the soul as it progresses.
It starts from the ninth the gunasthanak and goes to the tenth Gunasthanas and then progresses to the twelth Gunasthanak and skipping the eleventh Gunasthanak. Once in twelth Gunasthanak the salvation of Jiva is guaranteed during that life.
Usually the death word is associated with birth. But here after the end of life in 14th Gunasthanak stage there is liberation of soul from the worldly body forever and there is no birth associated with it. Once the soul is liberated it ends the cycle of births and deaths. That is why we donot use word death died for them.
Agam is the name given to the pure statements and expositions based on tenets of Jina; and this knowledge helps and guides us in our spiritual endeavours. These statements are given by the Kevalis only.