ACHARYA UMA SWAMI
community is not acquainted with the life story, as with the
Tattvarthasutra of Uma Swami, who attained great fame even with a very
small volume of written work.
He was the
chief disciple of Kundkund Acharya and blessed this land in the last days
of the first Vikram century and the first part of the second century.
Swami is one of those glorious acharyas, who enjoy complete reliability
and respect in the line of acharyas. In Jain tradition Tattvarthasutra
enjoys the same dignity as Gita amongst the followers of Vedic religion,
Bible amongst the Christians and Koran amongst the Mohammadans. Another
name given to this holy work is Mokshashastra.
A number of
commentaries in Sanskrit and Hindi languages on the great work have been
written both in Shwetamber as well as Digamber traditions. In Digamber
tradition, Sarvarthasiddhi of Pujyapad Acharya Devnandi, Tattvartha
Rajwartik of Aklankdeo, and Tattvarth Shlokwartik of Vidyanandi are the
most famous commentaries in the Sanskrit language. Acharya Samant Bhadra
wrote Gandh-hasti Mahabhasya on this great work, but it is not available.
A commentary by Shrut Sagar Suri in Sanskrit is also available.
famous commentary is Arthaprakashika of the old Hindi scholar Pandit
Sadasukhji. Among the modern scholars commentaries of Pandit Phoolchandji
Siddhantacharya, Pandit Kailashchandji Siddhantacharya, Pandit Pannalalji
Sahityacharya and many others are available. A big commentary of 810 pages
written by Shri Ramji Bhai Doshi, Songarha is also available.
in based on the 2nd chapter of the Tattvarthasutra.
: This is the sacred text Tattvarthasutra or Mokshashastra. We are
reading the second chapter. The matter in hand is the uncommon attributes
(inherent qualities) of the soul. Those who are desirous of the welfare of
the soul should recognise its inherent qualities, because one cannot
understand the non-soul elements without understanding the soul itself.
The well being of those, who do not understand both the soul and the
non-soul elements, is not possible. Acharya Uma Swami names the five
inherent qualities as Aupshamik, Kshayik, Mishra (Kshayopshamik),
Audyik and Parnamik. These are uncommon and intrinsic qualities
of the soul, and are not found anywhere else except in the soul.
Amritchandra has analysed these qualities in the fifty-sixth verse of the
Panchastikaya as follows :-
The rise of
karmas with their power to award consequences of previous behaviour
is the 'Udai'; then remaining suppressed is their 'Upsham';
rise and suppression combined is 'Kshayopsham' and their absolute
absence is 'Kshaya'. The quality that induces the stability of the
substance is 'Parinam'. That associated with 'Uday' is 'Audyika',
with 'Upshamc' is 'Aupshamik', with 'Kshaya' is 'Kshayik'
and with 'Parinam' is 'Parinamik'.
are associated with the four conditions of karmas are four Uday,
Upsham, Kshayopsham and Kshaya. Where no karma is the
instrumental cause except the nature of the substance only is the
I have not understood these fully. Please explain in more details.
Speaker : I
shall explain these separately. Try to understand and you will surely do
of being spiritually minded one gains some purity and by suppression of
the impurities of the qualities of faith and conduct, the Aupshamik
Bhava appears. At the same time the suppression of Darshanmohiniya
and Charitramohiniya is the upsham of the karmas
and that associated with such a state of the karmas is called the
complete non-existence of impurities in the manifestation of any one
attribute by leanings towards the soul and the consequent emergence of the
completely pure state is Kshayik Bhava. The complete annihilation
of the cover of the karmas at the same moment is the kshaya
of the karmas.
spiritually minded soul by its own efforts develops partial purity of the
qualities of faith and conduct. That partial purity from the point of view
of the qualities of faith and conduct is called Kshayopshamik Bhava.
The consequent rise and non-existence of the power of the karmas to
award the consequences is the kshayopsham of the karmas.
the same from the side of the karmas, Darshanmohiniya and
Charitramohiniya karmas have their rise as well as non-existence at
one and the same time. That state is called the kshayopsham of the
karmas. Consequent conditions of the qualities of faith and conduct
are called their Kshayopshama Bhava.
perception and strength qualities of the soul partially show their
effects, while partially remain dormant in the kshayopshamik Bhava.
These are found in all incompletely sentient beings.
perverse behaviour of the soul with the rise of these karmas is the
origination and disappearance, natural and ever constant state of our
being is the Parinamik Bhava.
bhavas have two, nine, eighteen, twenty and three kinds each.
kinds of the Aupshamik bhava are Aupshamik right faith and
kinds of Kshayik bhava are Omni sentience, Omni perception, Omni
charity, Omni gain, Omni bhog, Omni upbhog and Omni
eighteen kinds of the Mishra (Kshayopshamik) bhava are the four
Gyans- Sensory knowledge (Mati gyan), Scriptural knowledge (Shruti
gyan), Clairvoyance (Avadhi gyan), Telepathy (Manah Paryay
gyan); the three Agyans i.e. Perverse sensory knowledge (Kumati),
Perverse scriptural knowledge (Kushurut), Perverse clairvoyance (Kuawadhi);
three Perceptions i.e. Ocular perception (Chakshu darshan),
Non-ocular perception (Achakshu darshan), Clairvoyant perception (Awadhi
darshan); five Labdhies i.e. Kshayopshamik Dan, Labh,
Bhog, Upbhog and Virya; Kshayopshamik right faith,
kshayopshamik conduct and mixed conduct.
twenty-one kinds of the Audyik bhava are : the four phases of life
i.e. hellish, animal, human and divine; four passions i.e., anger, pride,
deception and greed; the three vedas i.e. faminine, masculine and
impotent; six leshyas i.e. Krishna (black), Neel (blue),
Kapot (brown), Peet (yellow), Padma (pink) and Shukla
(white); perverted faith, partial absence of consciousness, non-abstinence
and asiddhattva (i.e. not having the state of Siddhas).
kinds of the Parinamik bhava are Jeevattva (life attribute),
Bhavyatva (endowment of capacity for salvation) and Abhavyatva (endowment
of incapacity for salvation).
uncommon qualities are fifty-three in number.
What is the benefit of the knowledge of these bhavas and what do
1. Parnamik bhava indicates that the soul is eternal, one, pure and
sentient by nature.;
Audyik bhava states that though the soul is eternal, pure and sentient
by nature, perversion lies in its manifestations. It has connections with
the inanimate karmas from times having no beginnings. As long as
this soul undermines its sentient nature and leans towards the karmas,
perversion rises and continues. This perversion is not caused by the
Kshayopsharnik bhava reveals that though indulging in perversion since
times having no beginning, the soul does not lose its nature and become
inanimate. The partial expression of its sentience, perception and
vitality remains and when the soul makes true efforts after real
understanding, delusions partially disappear.
4. When the
soul understands its real nature and leans towards the Parnamik bhava,
disappearance of Audyik bhava starts, disappearance of the
Audyik bhava of the attribute of faith being the first. This is the
work of the Aupshamik bhava.
5. The full
and ever increasing adherence towards the Parnamik bhava leads to
the annihilation of perversion of all kinds. This is asserted by the
Are all these five bhavas always found in all the creatures ?
Only Parnamik bhava is found always in all the living beings.
Audyik bhava is found in all the worldly beings, but not in the
Siddhas; Kshayopshamik bhava, likewise, does not lie in the
liberated souls (the Siddhas), and in worldly beings also is not
found in the persons in the thirteenth and the fourteenth stage of
spiritual development (Gunasthans).
Is Kshayik bhava found in the liberated souls only ?
Yes, Kshayik bhava is always present in the liberated souls, and
not in the worldly beings. There is no question of this bhava being
present in the Abhavyas (that is being having no capacity of
salvation) and those having perverted faith. Out of all persons having
right faith and conduct, Kshayik bhava is found in persons having
Kshayik right faith and Kshavik conduct and in the
Aupshamik bhava is found in persons having Aupshamik right
faith and conduct.
least of all are persons in Aupshamik bhava, because beings with
Aupshamik right faith and conduct only are included in these.
in Kshayik bhava are greater in number than persons of Aupshamik
bhava, because they include persons with Kshayik right faith
and conduct and the Arhantas and the Siddhas.
in Kshayopshamik bhava are more in number than those in Kshayik
bhava, because beings in first to twelfth Gunasthans are
included in these.
having Audyik bhava are more in number than those in
Kshayopshamik bhava, because beings from the first to the fourteenth
Gunasthans are included in these.
greatest number is that of the beings in the Parnamik bhava,
because they cover creatures from the Nigod to the Siddhas.
This order has been maintained in the Tattvarthasutra. We can
conclude and say-
no living being without Parnamik bhava.
no worldly being without Audyik bhava
no incompletely sentient being without Kshayopshamik bhava
no beings with Kshayik faith, conduct and the Arhantas and
the Sidhhas without
no beginners in the path of religion without Aupshamik bhava.
Please let us know the duration of these bhavas.
Aupshamic Bhava : With a beginning and an end, because its duration
Kshayik Bhava : With a starting point but with no end and from the
point of view of staying in this world, it is somewhat more than thirty
Bhava : Having no starting point but having the end - in relation to
Jivas (that is having the capacity for salvation). Having no start
and no end - in connection with the Abhaya Jivas (that is having
no capacity for salvation and those having the capacity but not
Kshayopshamik Bhava : Having no starting point but having an end -
sentience perception and vitality aspect.
start and end both - somewhat more than sixty-six sagars from the open
manifestation of religion aspect.
Parinamik Bhava - Eternal-no starting point, no end.
I have understood this. Now please let me know what bhavas are
worth having and what not, because without knowing the merits and demands
of these how can we retain or leave them ?
Well asked, without knowing what is to be adopted, which is to be
discarded and what is to be known only, our information cannot be
Audyik is undesirable, Aupshamik and Kshayopshamik of
the pursuer and Kshayik bhava from the point of view of obtaining
it are desirable and Parnamik bhav is the most desirable from the
point of view of taking refuge in it.
Audyik bhava is perversion, it is undesirable for the man in the
pursuit of the soul and. is not for adherence. Auposhamik bhava,
and the Kshayopshamik bhava of the pursuer are with starting point
and the end; they are manifestations of one moment only. Kshayik bhava
is with its beginning but having no end. However, it is also a
manifestation of one moment only and as such not suitable for reliance or
bhava, that is eternal, is the only bhava for taking refuge.
nutshell those who want to tread the path of religion and want to be happy
should not look towards the first four bhavas and should take
refuge in the eternal existent and sentient by nature Parnamik bhava
only, because by taking refuge in it, religion takes roots, continues,
prospers and achieves completion.
do we have that Interest for doing "Swadhyay" of the spiritual books
which we have for reading the passion-stimulating literature which
only contains descriptions of the objects of the five senses. Very few
persons are there who would have done Swadhyay" of the spiritual,
doctrinal or philosophical books right from the beginning to the end.
The ordinary persons do not do "Swadhyay" regularly and concentratedly.
Even such learned persons are few who do "Swadhyay" of some important
work concentratedly and thoroughly. If we cannot study any book
completely from the beginning to the end, how would it be possible to
reach to its depth or touch its essence ? When we don't have even the
interest to read it completely, how would, then, the complete nature
of the subject, discussed therein, get absorbed in our knowledge and
have never left incomplete the reading of novels etc., which only
strengthen the objects of the senses and passional activities; we halt
only after finishing it and are even prepared to miss our meal for
completing it. Have we, any time, forgotten taking food being
engrossed in the study of spiritual literature ? If not, then, take it
for granted that our interest is not that much deep in the metaphysics
as it is in the objects of the senses and passions.
Page 118: Dr. H. C. Bharill