Speaker :-I bow to thee Oh
Vardhman Bhagwan, the advocate of the path of emancipation, whom the lords
of heavenly beings and the Asuras adore and wash off their impurities of
the bondage of karma.
This is the sacred
Pravachansar, Acharya Kundkunddeo wrote it about two thousand years back.
Acharya Amritchandra has written the great commentary Tatva Pradipika in
Sanskrit, as great as the original work itself. There are three big
chapters of this commentary :-
1. Gyan Tatva Pragyapan
2. Geya Tatva Pragyapan
3. Charananuyog Suchak
We are at the sixteenth
verse of the Gyan Tatva Pragyapan chapter. It has been shown here that
achievement of the pure soul, with perfectly pure operative consciousness,
is most independent, having no adherence to other cases (grammar). The
meaning is that no support of any non-self substance is needed for
psychical consciousness and psychical happiness.
The soul having attained
its natural attribute is omniscient. worshipped by the whole world and
born of itself. This has been asserted by Jinendradeo.
The Acharya wants to say
here that from the real point of view the soul has no case-relationship
with any non-soul element. This being is in vain unhappy in his
restlessness for the association of objects other than the soul.
The Student :-What
is the relationship of cases ? What are cases ? Please explain these at
which creates an action, is purposeful in the happening of the action, is
called the case. Case can only be that which in some shape or the other
can be purposeful in the operation of the action, none else.
There are six cases
1. (Karta)-Subjective or
2. (Karma)-The objective
3. (Karan)-Means of that
receiver of the action
5. (Apadan)-Producer and
6. (Adhikaran)-Base of
That which independently
(unaidedly) does (performs) its own deed (function) is called the doer
(agent or Karta); whatever modification is obtained by the subject (the
doer) is called its function (Karma); the substantial cause of that
particular deed by which it is done or originated is called the means of
that deed (the Karan); that for which that particular deed is performed or
done, is called the receiver (Sampradan karak); the permanent substance
out of which that particular function or deed is done or obtained is
called the (Apadan) and the permanent cause and the same permanent
substance is called the base of the deed (Adhikaran).
These six cases are of
two kinds: (i) real, (ii) conventional. When the achievement of the deed
is shown as due to other agencies, we have conventional cases; and where
the achievement is said to be due to the substance itself (its inner
strength) it is called real case.
The application of
conventional cases is like this :-The pot-makar is the doer, the jar is
the deed, wheel, stick etc. are means, the pot-maker makes the jar for
somebody to keep water in it, that somebody is the (Sampradan) or the
receiver; the earth is taken out of the pit which is the Apadan (or the
permanent cause) and the pot is made on the base of the earth, which is
the base or (Adhikaran). All the cases are different from each other.
Intrinsically no substance can be the producer or destroyer of any other
substance. As such all the six cases are untrue. They have been called so
from the imposed untrue conventional aspect of speech. From the real
aspect no substance has any case-relationship with any other substance.
The application of the
real cases is like this:- Earth independently accomplishes the production
of the jar. As such earth is the producer and jar is the object of
creation, in other words jar is not separate from the earth and so earth
itself is the object; the earth produced the jar on account of its own
operative power and so earth is the means (Karan); the earth gave the
produced jar to itself and so the earth is the receiver (Sampradan); the
earth destroyed its mass modification and produced the jar, while it
remained permanent, as such the earth is the Apadan (permanent cause) and
the earth made the jar with its own foundation and so it is itself the
base (Adhikaran). Thus all the intrinsic cases are found in the same one
substance cannot give any help or support to the other and it operates and
produces its modifications itself, to itself, with itself, for itself, out
of itself and in itself. Therefore, the real six cases are the supreme
As shown above, the
substance itself is full of its wealth of eternal vitality and as such is
capable of doing its own work into the six cases; no outside agency can
transforming itself into the six cases; no outside agency can offer any
help to it. Thus the soul desirous of obtaining the offer any help to it.
Supreme sentience does not need any support, its dependence on others is
meaningless. The soul with its adherence to the pure state of its being
obtains omniscience in itself and by assuming six cases itself. That soul
is independent on account of its own eternal vitality and sentient nature
and as such is the doer (Karta), it achieves the omnipotent consciousness
which is its deed (Karma) or that it is in itself inseparable from
omncsience and therefore, it is the deed; it achieves omniscience by
science by the highest soul endeavour of its operative consciousness and
so it is the means (Karan); it gives omniscience to itself and so the soul
itself is the receiver (Sampradan); it discards its own incomplete sensory
knowledge and produces omniscience by its natural conscious behaviour,
which is permanent, and as such it is the permanent cause (Apadan); and it
creates omniscience on its own foundation and as such it itself is the
base (Adhikaran). Thus it itself assumes six cases, and so is called born
The Student :-The
above scheme applies to the pure modifications of the soul. Is there
case-relationship in the unnatural manifestations of the soul and the
karmic matter of Gyanavaran and others ?
Speaker :- No.
The six cases operate in every modification of the six substances
intrinsically in themselves. Thus the soul and the matter substance, be
they in their pure or impure states, assume the six cases themselves and
do not stand in need of other cases.
illustrated this in his great work Panchastikaya. Amritchandracharya has
clarified it most strongly in the commentary of the 62nd verse, which is
as below :-
substance being the doer of karmic matter independently, matter itself is
2. Because karma
matter attains that stage itself, it is the deed, or being inseparable
from karmic matter, matter itself is the deed.
of the power of changing itself into karmic matter, matter substance
itself is the means.
converts itself into karmic matter, the matter substance itself is the
previous manifestation in itself and thus turning into karmic matter and
also remaining permanent as matter, the matter substance itself is the
permanent case and
producer of karmic matter on its own basis, the matter substance is the
In the same manner :-
independently operating as sentience and perfection is itself the doer.
soul attains that stage itself, it is the deed or being inseparable from
the soul itself, it is the deed.
of the power of changing itself in animate form, the soul itself is the
converts itself into the animate form, the soul itself is the receiver.
previous manifestation in itself and thus turning into animate substance
and also remaining permanent as soul, the soul substance itself is the
permanent case and
producer of the living soul substance on its own basis, the soul substance
is the basis case.
In reality the karma
itself changes into the six cases and as such does not stand in need of
the six cases of any other substance. Likewise, the soul manifests
itself into the six cases and does not need the help of the six cases of
any other substance; therefore, from the intrinsic point of view, soul
is not the doer of the karmas and the karmas are not the doer of the soul.
From the real point of
view, the matter substance itself manifests in the shape of the eight
Karmas and the soul substance as the Audyik Bhawas. The cases of both are
quite separate from one another and do not require the help of the other.
As such, the cases of one substance do not stand in need of the cases of
Student :-What do
we gain by all this analysis ?
Speaker :-It is clear
that wrong belief persists as long as faith retains the conception that
one substance can operate the origination or destruction, modifications of
any other substance. When the faith entertains the true belief that every
substance is the agent (doer) of its own modifications the soul due to its
own non-sentient state deserves roaming in the worldly circle of existence
and the same soul by dint of its effort can end this state and becomes
qualified for the supreme happiness of the liberated state. It is at this
point that the manifestation of right faith in the soul starts and on this
basis, as the soul develops independence of other entities and proceeds
further on the path of conduct, it assumes the shape of soul absorption
and complete merger into the sentient nature. It is only convention to say
that a substance is the agent responsible for changes in other substances
by way of doer, deed, means, receiver, permanent cause or basis;
intrinsically every substance is the creator of its own modifications, it
is itself the deed, itself the means, itself the receiver, itself the
permanent cause and itself its own basis. This is the supreme faith.
Since eternity, this
soul has forgotten the six real cases and has been placing its faith in
the conventional cases and thus roaming in the wide world. The real path
of liberation starts, when this soul really believes in the operation of
the six real cases, takes recourse to its eternal sentient nature and
arouses in itself the manifestation of the pure soul. As such, a correct
knowledge of six cases is necessary in the activity of the purification of
It has here been said
that from the real aspect, the soul does not have any case relationship
with other substances. Creatures on the path of emancipation, therefore,
in vain invite dependence on others and are unhappy on account of the
consequent restlessness in finding external means to achieve this aim.
Student :-We have
been very much benefited by the information about real and conventional
six cases, but you have not explained why you have discussed six cases
only when they are eight in number. Why did you not include vocative and
connective cases in the list of cases as such ?
Speaker :-There is no
question of vocative being a case, but connective is also not a case. Both
these have no relationship with the verb. That which is purposeful in some
way or the other in the operation of the verb is alone called a case.
Vocative and connective are not purposeful in the operation of the verb
and so they have not been included in the cases.
By understanding this
scheme of the six cases, tearing your vision from other non-self
substances, if you merge yourself in your own being, the soul, you will
certainly attain supreme bliss.
Samaysar is the great
unique treatise of Jain spiritualism. Pravachansar and Panchastikaya have
detailed description of the Jain principles. The above three are also
known as Natak Trayi, Prabhrit Trayi and Kundkund Trayi. Acharya
Amritchandra has written elaborate commentaries on the three in the
Sanskrit language. Commentaries of Acharya Jaisen in Sanskrit are also
The present lesson has
been written on the basis of Pravachansar and Panchastikaya and their
commentaries. Readers are advised to study seriously the treatises of
Kundkund in order to understand the subtleties and the principles of Jain
Dr. H.C. Bharill