Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Preface
Publisher's Note
Author’s Note
Mahavira: A Non-Violent Revolutionary
Transfer of Embryo
  Socio-political Conditions
  Vajji's Democracy
  Magadha and Srenika
  Ajatasatru Vajjis
  Princely following of Mahavira
  Social Conditions
  Intellectual Fervour
  Revolutionary push by Mahavira
  Significant Events
  Indra's Offer of Protection
  Five Resolves at Morak Hermitage
  Education Rather than Exposure
  Poisonous Fangs of Canda Kausika
  States of a Digambara
  Association with Gosala
  Candanabala : First Head of Women Disciples
  Final Act of Nirjara
  Attainment of Kaivalya
  First Ganadharas
  Muttanam-Moyaganam
  THE ULTIMATE REALITY
  ONTOLOGY OF ATMAN, THE SELF
  FACT OF THE MATTER
  JOURNEY TO FREEDOM
  ETHICS OF RESPONSIBILITY
  Actions follow the Doer
  Search for Responsibilty and Sramana Line
  Mahavira's Synthesis
  Psychological Approach of Mahavira
  Categories of Karmas
  Duration of Karmic Bondage
  Nature of Bondage
  Mitigation of Bondage
  Fresh Karmas
  Life's activities
  Even good actions bind, if motivated
  Consequences of Karma Theory
  MECHANICS OF CHANGE
  Process of Change and Nine Tattvas
  Essential Tendency of Jiva
  Papa' and ‘Punya' : Both of Binding Nature
  Asrava (Influx)
  Bandha (Bondage)
  Samvara
  Nirjara (Shedding of Accumulated Karmas)
  Moksa (Final Liberation)
  PLURALISTIC REALISM
  THEORY RELATIVITY
  MODUS OPERANDI
  Enlightened Consciousness
  Self, the starting point
  Will and Eagerness
  Upadana-Nimittan
  Bhavana or Anupreksa (Reflection)
  Twelve Vratas of House-holder
  Prayer
  Dhyana (Meditation)
  Lesya (Disposition)
  Code of Conduct for Monks - Modus Operandi
  Austerities (Tapascarya)
  Sanllekhana
  A PATH-WAY OF LIFE
  APPENDICES
  Appendix - A
  Appendix - B
  Appendix - C
  Appendix - D
  Appendix - E
  BIBLIOGRAPHY

MECHANICS OF CHANGE

Justice T.U.Mehta

Bandha (Bondage)

This is next stage, when the inflowing karmas actually stick to and permeate the self, just as water permeates milk. When this happens the self gets perfectly polluted and is bound to reap the fruits of the karmas which pollute it. These karmas are of eight types which we have already discussed in the foregoing chapter.

Since the karmic flow which results in Bandha-Bondage has to be suffered, it is necessary to consider the time duration and intensity of the bondage. While considering this aspect, the Jainas have classified these Bandhas into four types, namely, 1.Prakrti-bandha (Nature of the Bondage), 2.Sthiti-bandha (Duration of the bondage), 3. Anubhaga-bandha (Intensity of the bondage), 4. Pradesa-bandha (Space-dimensions of the bondage). The first suggests the quality or nature such as Jnanavaraniya or Darsanavaraniya, etc. The second one determines the time-duration for which the fruits of karmas are to be enjoyed. The third, showing the intensity of the result, depends upon the intensity of the passions with which the karma is performed. In other words intensity of the result is reflected by the intensity of the cause. The fourth occupies different space dimensions of the self in accordance with the temperamental disposition of the self in accordance with the temperamental disposition of each individual and binds each individual soul in different manners. All these four types of bondages are determined at the very time when the deeds are done or intention to do them is entertained.

What are the causes of Bandha ? According to Umasvati, they are five in number, i.e., wrong belief, non-restraint, passions, unawareness and activity. Among these five passions (kasayas) and activity (yoga) are more important. Kasayas are, as already noticed, anger, pride, deceit and greed. Yoga, in Jainism means the activity of body, speech and mind. Among the remaining causes Mithyatva means false attitude. Avirati means non-cessation from enjoyment of sensual objects and Pramada means want of consant awaremess. If these are the causes of Bandha, their opposite elements would be the causes of its absence.

Thus the four Tattvas namely Papa, Asrava and Bandha show how the self gets bound and polluted by karmic forces. Since life is constantly going on with good or bad activities, the karmic bondage is also a continuous process. The self also earns further karmas even while experiencing the fruits of previous karmas. If this is so, it appears that the self would never be free from karmic bondages and all efforts to achieve freedom would be in vain. Then what is the way out ?