Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Preface
Publisher's Note
Author’s Note
Mahavira: A Non-Violent Revolutionary
Transfer of Embryo
  Socio-political Conditions
  Vajji's Democracy
  Magadha and Srenika
  Ajatasatru Vajjis
  Princely following of Mahavira
  Social Conditions
  Intellectual Fervour
  Revolutionary push by Mahavira
  Significant Events
  Indra's Offer of Protection
  Five Resolves at Morak Hermitage
  Education Rather than Exposure
  Poisonous Fangs of Canda Kausika
  States of a Digambara
  Association with Gosala
  Candanabala : First Head of Women Disciples
  Final Act of Nirjara
  Attainment of Kaivalya
  First Ganadharas
  Muttanam-Moyaganam
  THE ULTIMATE REALITY
  ONTOLOGY OF ATMAN, THE SELF
  FACT OF THE MATTER
  JOURNEY TO FREEDOM
  ETHICS OF RESPONSIBILITY
  Actions follow the Doer
  Search for Responsibilty and Sramana Line
  Mahavira's Synthesis
  Psychological Approach of Mahavira
  Categories of Karmas
  Duration of Karmic Bondage
  Nature of Bondage
  Mitigation of Bondage
  Fresh Karmas
  Life's activities
  Even good actions bind, if motivated
  Consequences of Karma Theory
  MECHANICS OF CHANGE
  Process of Change and Nine Tattvas
  Essential Tendency of Jiva
  Papa' and ‘Punya' : Both of Binding Nature
  Asrava (Influx)
  Bandha (Bondage)
  Samvara
  Nirjara (Shedding of Accumulated Karmas)
  Moksa (Final Liberation)
  PLURALISTIC REALISM
  THEORY RELATIVITY
  MODUS OPERANDI
  Enlightened Consciousness
  Self, the starting point
  Will and Eagerness
  Upadana-Nimittan
  Bhavana or Anupreksa (Reflection)
  Twelve Vratas of House-holder
  Prayer
  Dhyana (Meditation)
  Lesya (Disposition)
  Code of Conduct for Monks - Modus Operandi
  Austerities (Tapascarya)
  Sanllekhana
  A PATH-WAY OF LIFE
  APPENDICES
  Appendix - A
  Appendix - B
  Appendix - C
  Appendix - D
  Appendix - E
  BIBLIOGRAPHY

MECHANICS OF CHANGE

Justice T.U.Mehta

�Papa' and �Punya' : Both of Binding Nature

Let us discuss how �the self' progresses in its upward journey towards ultimate end. What is to be achieved is the divorce of the self from non-self called Pudgala which means to create the detached outlook towards worldly objects. In our worldly existence we engages our self in various types of activities and it necessarily comes in contact with more and more karmic forces, which are essentially of two types, namely those which are of vicious character and those which are of virtuous character called Papa and Punya respectively. Papa-vicious acts, resulting in sins, are caused mainly by mohaniya karmas, that is, by aversion, delusion and passions. Due to these self remains indulged in the activities which are purely selfish and materialistic. Anger, avarice, violence, indulgence in sex and apathy towards trials and tribulations of others generate the karmic forces of Papa and put the �self' in further bondages.

On the contrary, good and virtuous acts such as sympathy for others, willingness to help the poor and weak, right conduct, social awareness generated by pious attachment result in the karmic forces called Punya. These virtuous deeds bring in their train the feeling of pleasure, good and comfortable life and other favourable circumstances.

Both these types of karmic forces bind the self and work as shackles on the real freedom. The simple reason being that bad as well as good deeds necessarily imply a pre-disposition to do them and are prompted by motives, i.e., aversion or attachment (Dvesa or Raga). The ultimate aim of the self, that is, to get liberated from all kinds of shackles-good or bad- and to ultimately this vicious cycle of birth or death is hindered even by good deeds, binding the soul in golden chains of pleasure and comforts.

However, it must not be mistaken that Jainism equates good deeds with bad ones. It does recognise that good deeds are conducive to social order and these deeds also enable the self, put in pleasant and comfortable situation, to progress further. Hence, good deeds resulting in �Punya' are always more desirable than bad deeds resulting in Papa. But when Jainas point out that even good deeds result in bondage, their emphasis is on the metaphysical aspect of the good deeds. Therefore it is necessary to know the real character of the karmic forces generated by good deeds purely from philosophical point of views keeping aside social point of view. Punya karmas result in giving the self many worldly pleasures and comforts but not the bliss of salvation. The salvation is not possible if element of attachment (Moha) is left in them. And it is remarkable that most of the so called good deeds, performed for �social good', are the every aspirant for spiritual perfection is expected to do all his deeds-apparently good or bad-without attachment and should behave like a �Sthita' means �Steady' and �Prajna' means understanding. Thus, �Sthitaprajna' , a person with steady mind and understanding, acts without motives, in a natural way, just as the sun shines and gives light. To shine and to give light is natural and motiveless for the sun. The sun-light is helpful for good as well as bad actions, but the sun is not, in the least, concerned with that. Such unconcerned, motivless and natural actions in life do not bind the self even if they result in good or bad ends.