Along with various restrictions laid down as necessary elements in the
observance of the vow of Ahimsa, certain specific virtues, reflections and
controls or sufferings are also prescribed by sacred Jaina texts as
supplements to the practice of Ahimsa-vrata. These supplements are
Ten Kinds of Dharma,
Twelve kinds of Anupreksha and
Twenty-two kinds of Parishaha jaya,
and these are considered specifically
useful in achieving Samvara, i.e., stoppage of influx of Karmic matter
into the soul, which is a necessary condition to the attainment of Moksha
or salvation. These supplements constitute a part of the rules of conduct
prescribed for the saints. But it has been particularly mentioned that
these should be followed by householders also to the best of their
The ten noble virtues, known as 'Dasalakshana
Dharma', are expected to be assiduously cultivated and put into actual
practice during their normal life by the followers of Jainism. Since the
emphasis has been laid on the translation of the virtues into practice,
these ten virtues are known as ten observances also. The ten noble virtues
Uttama-Kshama, i.e., Supreme
Forgiveness or Forbearance,
Uttama-Mardava, i.e., Supreme humility
Uttama-Arjava i.e., supreme honesty or
Uttama-Saucha, i.e., Supreme
contentment or purity of thought and freedom from greed,
Uttama-Satya, i.e. Supreme truth,
Uttama-Samyama, i.e., Supreme
self-control or self-restraint,
Uttama-Tapa, i.e., Supreme
Uttama-tyaga, i.e., Supreme
Uttama-Akinchana, i.e., Supreme
non-attachment or not taking the non-self for one's own self, and
Uttama-Brahmacharya, i.e., Supreme
In addition to ten noble virtues, every
pious person is expected to contemplate on the following twelve 'Anuprekshas'
i.e., the ideas which must be kept at the focus of thoughts constantly.
Anitya anupreksha, i.e., impermanence
or in other words everything is subject to change or is transitory,
Asarana anupreksha, meaning without
refuge, unprotectiveness or helplessness. The feeling that soul is
unprotected from fruition of Karmas, for example, death, etc.,
Samsara anupreksha, i.e., mundaneness
or cycle of births and deaths. Soul moves in the cycle of existences and
cannot attain true happiness till it is cut off.
Ekatva anupreksha, i.e., loneliness. I
am alone, the doer of my actions and the enjoyer of the fruits of them.
Anyatva anupreksha, i.e., separateness
or difference in nature. The world, my relations and friends, my body
and mind, they are all distinct and separate from my real self.
Asuchi anupreksha, i.e., impurity. The
body is impure and dirty.
Asrava anupreksha, i.e., inflow. The
inflow of Karmas is the cause of my mundane existence and is the product
Samvara anupreksha, i.e., stoppage.
The inflow of Karma must be stopped.
Nirjara anupreksha, i.e., shedding.
The old Karmic matter must be shed from or shaken out of the soul.
Loka anupreksha, i.e., the world or
the universe. The nature of the universe and its constituent elements in
all their vast variety proving the insignificance and miserable
nothingness of man in time and space.
Bodhi-durlabha anupreksha, i.e.,
variety of religious knowledge. It is difficult to attain right belief,
right knowledge and right conduct.
Dharma anupreksha, i.e., reflection on
the nature of religious path as preached by the conquerors, namely the
true nature of the three fold path of liberation.
These twelve Anuprekshas are meditations
or reflections and have to be meditated upon again and again. Sometimes
these Anuprekshas are termed as Bhavanas also.
Along with the inculcation of the noble
virtues and meditation of twelve reflections, every pious person must
attempt at Parishaha-Jaya, i.e.,. the conquering of various types of
Parishahas i.e., sufferings or inconveniences and pains. The Parishahas
are the hardships or sufferings which have to be undergone by a
conscientious person for the sake of non-falling off from the path of
Moksha, i.e., liberation, and for the shedding of Karmic matter from the
soul. Hence Parishaha-Jaya means victory over the consciousness of pain or
suffering. Such sufferings are of following 22 kinds:
Kshut, i.e., Hunger,
Pipasa, i.e., Thirst,
Sita, i.e., Cold.
Ushna, i.e., Heat,
Damsamasaka, i.e. Insect-bite,
Nagnya, i.e., Nakedness,
Arati, i.e., Ennui or disagreeable
Stri, i.e., Sex-passion,
Charya, i.e., Walking too much,
Nishadya, i.e., Continuous sitting in
Sayya, i.e., Resting on hard earth,
Akrosa, i.e., Abuse or unpleasant and
Vadha, i.e., Beating or violence
inflicted by cruel persons,
Yachana, i.e., Begging or desire to
beg for food, medicine, etc.,
Alabha, i.e., Disappointment from not
getting what one wants, e.g. food,
Roga, i.e., Diseases and infirmities
in the body,
Trnasparsa, i.e., Thorn-pricks or
pricks from the sharp grass,
Mala, i.e., Dirt and impurity all over
Satkara-puraskara, i.e. Remaining
uninfluenced by praise or reward,
Prajna, i.e., Pride of knowledge,
Ajnana, i.e., feeling of ignorance or
non-possession of knowledge, and
Adarsana, i.e., slack-belief or
temporary lack of faith.
For example, on failure to attain
supernatural powers even after great piety and austerities, to begin to
doubt the faith of Jainism and its teachings.
It is laid down that these 22 sufferings
should be ever endured without any feeling of vexation, by one who desires
to get rid of all causes for pain.
Apart from these three types of
supplements to Ahimsavrata which are considered useful
in achieving Samvara, i.e., stoppage of
influx of Karmic matter into the soul, there is one more important
supplement to Ahimsa-vrata known as the "Practice of Tapa", i.e.,
observance of austerities. These austerities are regarded as essential
things for achieving Nirjara, i.e., the shedding of Karmic matter from the
soul, which is a necessary condition to the attainment of Moksha, i. e.,
salvation. The Jaina scriptures distinguish twelve kinds of austerities,
as the expedients of Nirjara, grouped together under the two headings of
Bahya Tapa, i.e., external austerities, and Abhyantara Tapa, i.e.,
The six external austerities are:
Anasana, i.e., periodical fasting,
Avamodarya, i.e., eating less than the
capacity of the stomach,
Vrtti-parisankhyana, i.e., putting
restrictions in regard to food, for example, to accept food only if a
certain condition is fulfilled.
Rasa-parityaga, i.e., daily
renunciation of one or more of six kinds of delicacies, viz., ghee,
milk, curds, sugar, salt and oil,
Vivikta-sayyasana, i. e., sitting or
sleeping in a lonely or isolated place, devoid of animate beings, and
Kayaklesa, i.e., mortification of the
body so long as the mind is not disturbed.
The six internal austerities are
Prayaschitta, i.e., expiation,
Vinaya, i.e., reverence,
Vaiyavrtya, i.e., service of the
saints or worthy people,
Svadhyaya, i.e., study.
Vyutsarga, i.e., giving up attachment
to the body, etc., and
Dhyana, i.e., concentration of mind.
All these external and internal kinds of
austerities are practiced with the object of burning or shedding out all
karmic impurities from the soul. These austerities are meant mainly for
the ascetics, but it has also been enjoined upon the householders to
practice them to the best of their abilities.