The Abhyantara Tapa - six
kinds of internal austerities are:
Dhyanam vyapritiramyavini guro
vridhay ch balai yato
Kayotsarjan satkriya vinay
itayvam tapa shadvidham
i) Svadhyaya - study of
scriptures for getting rid of the ambition for name and fame, for 'Fame is
the last infirmity of noble minds.'
ii) Prayashchit - expiation
or confession and repentance of sins;
iii) Dhyana - concentration of
mind and not to let the mind go astray.
iv) Vaiyavrtyaya - rendering
service to other saints, who have been rendered helpless due to sickness
or old age.
v) Vyutsarga - giving up
attachment to the body; and,
vi) Vinya - reverence or modest
behavior - to practice four types of humility in conduct.
These external and internal
penances form the code of conduct for the rigorous life of self-denial the
ascetics have to lead.
Again, penance is of two kinds;
1. Tamasa-tapasaya (kutap) -
The dark penance involves the
ghastly and terrible practices, as to sleep on the pointed iron nails, to
walk on the burning fire, to get oneself suspended from a tree, to get
oneself buried in the ground.
2. Satvika-tapasya (sutap) -
real or true penance.
The true penance involves the
genuine or natural ways of practicing penance. This real or true penance
gives prominence to the practice of �Dhayana� (meditation) and 'Upavasa'
(fasting). Dark penance is the cause of migration of soul in the universe.
True penance results in the liberation of the soul. Penance is practiced
for eternal bliss. It has been said:
"Karmkshyarth tapayat iti tap"
The penance performed to annihilate
the karmic matter is the real penance. Without annihilation of the
karmas, the final goal i.e., liberation cannot be attained.
Therefore, penance is a must for a living being aspiring for salvation. It
has been stated in 'Rajvartika'- 'karmdahnatapa': that which
results in the burning or annihilation of the karmas is called
penance. Acharya Padam Nandi in the holy book �Panchvinshati� has
stated the same thing as follows:
tapayatai tapa proktam"
The penance performed by a monk
endowed with the vision of Right Knowledge (samyakgyanddsss) to
wash off the dirt of karmas from the soul, is called true penance.
He who on subjugating five senses and four passions aroused by the
abundance of semen is called penance. The author of the sacred book
'Dhawal' has also defined penance as followed:
Suppression of desires to attain
the three jewels - Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right conduct - is
called penance. To discard all desires at heart and become absorbed in the
real self in order to conquer the karmas is known as penance. The
word penance means to shun the sensual pleasures. Therefore, one who
desires to perform penance will have to first overcome the lust for
sensual pleasures; only then penance can be called successful. The
abstention of ambition for legitimate and illegitimate, right and wrong
sensuous pleasures in order to attain the three jewels, viz. Right faith,
Right knowledge, and Right conduct is termed penance. In Bhagwati
Aradhana penance has been defined as strict observance of the
rules of moral conduct:
Chranrami tasmi jo ujamo ya
aunjanra ya jo hoi
So chaiv jinraihin tavo bhanrido
The holy Lord Jinendra has
declared the dedication to the moral code of conduct and the
observance of these rules of morality in practical life penance.
To suffer calmly without murmur,
the good or bad results of karmas that have become effective and
not to commit any type of violence towards any living being is the essence
of penance. In the critical appreciation of 'Sarvartha Siddhi' it
has been said:
To mortify the body as much as
possible according to the rules laid for the path of salvation without
letting your spiritual power lie dormant is penance. A wise thinker has
said, "The path of the brave is thorny; it involves mortification of the
The same thing has been stated
in the Rajvartika as below:
"Dehsyaindryanram ch tapam
karoti ityanshanadi tap ichauchaytai"
To keep fast and observe
austerities by restraining man's tendency of indulging in the pleasures of
the body and senses is penance. In Kartikeyanupreksha it has been
Ih par loye suhanram nrirvaikho
jo karaidi sam bhavo
Viviham kaya kalaisham tavdhammo