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Chapter 8  

 BONDAGE OF KARMA

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Mithyadarshanavirati-pramada-kashaya-

yoga bandhahetavah

_Wrong belief, attachment, negligence, passions 

and activities are the causes of bondage.

   

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Sakashayatvajjivah karmano yogyanpudgalanadatte sa bandhah

_Owing to wrong belief, passions etc. the self attracts subtle matter pervading the same space points occupied by the self, capable of turning into karmic matter, which is called influx. When such karmic matter is combined by interpenetration with the space points of the self, it is called bondage.

   

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Prakrti-sthityanubhava-pradeshastadvidhayah

_Bondage is of four kinds according to the nature or species of karma, duration of karma, fruition of karma, and the quantity of space-points of karma.

   

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Adyo gyanadarshanavarana-vedaniyamohaniya-

yurnama-gotrantarayah

_The nature of karmas is of eight kinds i.e. knowledge-obscuring, perception-obscuring, feeling-producing, deluding, life-determining, name-determining (physique- making) status-determining and obstructive karmas.

   

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Pancha-nava-dvyastavinshati-chaturdvichatvarinshaddvi-pancha-bheda yathakramam

_The subdivisions of these eight kind of bondage are five, nine, two, twenty-eight, four, forty-two, two and five kinds respectively.

   

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Mati-srutavadhi-manahparyaya-kevalanam

_Karmas which obscure sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience are the five kinds of knowledge-obscuring karmas.

   

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Chakshurachakshuravadhikevalanam nidra-nidranidra-prachala-prachala-prachala-styanagrddhayashcha

_The four karmas that cover ocular perception, non-ocular intution, clairvoyant perception and perfect perception, and sleep, deep sleep, drowsiness (sleep in sitting posture), heavy drowsiness (intense sleep in sitting posture) and somnambulism (committing  deeds in sleep and not remembering) are the nine subtypes of perception-covering karmas.

   

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Sadasadvedye

_The two karmas which cause pleasant feeling and unpleasant feeling respectively are the two subtypes of feeling-producing karmas.  

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Darshana-charitramohaniyakashaya-kashaya-

vedaniyakhyastri-dvi-nava-shodashabhedah samyaktva-mithyatva-tadubhayanyakashaya-kashayau hasya-ratyarati-shoka-bhaya-jugupsa-stripunna-pumsakaveda anantanubandhya-pratyakhyana-pratyakhyana-sanjvalana-

vikalpashchaikashah krodha-mana-maya-lobhah

_The deluding karmas are of twenty-eight kinds. These are the three subtypes of faith-deluding karmas - wrong belief, right belief and mixed belief, and twenty five subtypes of conduct-deluding karmas which cause and which are caused by the passions (sixteen types - each of the four passions i.e. anger, pride, deceit fulness and greed is divided into four classes i.e. very intense, intense, mediocre and weak) and the quasi-passions (nine types - laughter, liking for certain objects, dislike for other objects, grief or sorrow, fear, disgust, hankering after men, hankering after women and hankering after both men and women).

   

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Naraka-tairyagyona-manusha-daivani

_The life-karmas determine the quantum of life in the states of existence as infernal beings, plants animals, immobile beings, human beings and celestial beings.

   

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Gati-jati-sharirangopanga-nirmana-bandhana-sanghata-

sansthana-sanhanana-sparsha-rasa-gandha-

varnanupurvyagurulaghupaghata-paraghatata-

podyotochchhvasa-vihayogatayah pratyekasharira-trasa-subhaga-susvara-shubha-

sukshma-paryapti-sthiradeya-yashahkirti-

setarani tirthankaratvam cha

_The name (physique-making) karmas comprise the state of existence, the class, the body, the chief and secondary parts, formation, binding (union), molecular interfusion, structure, joint, touch, taste, odour, colour, movement after death, neither heavy body falls down nor light body flies away, self-annihilation, annihilation by others, emitting warm splendour, emitting cool lustre, respiration, gait, individual body, mobile being, amiability, a melodious voice, beauty of form, minute body, complete development of the organs, firmness, lustrous body, glory and renown, and the opposites of these (commencing from individual body), and Tirthankaratva.

   

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Uchchairnichaishcha

_The status determining karmas comprise of the high and the low.

   

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Dana-labha-bhogopabhoga-viryanam

_The obstructive karmas are of five kinds, obstrucing the charity, gain, enjoyment of consumable things, enjoyment of non-consumable things and potency.

   

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Aditastisrnamantarayasya cha trinshat-

sagaropama-kotikotyah para sthitih

_The maximum duration of the knowledge obscuring, perception obscuring, feeling producing and obstructive karmas is thirty sagara kotikoti.

   

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Saptatirmohaniyasya

_Seventy sagara koti-koti is the maximum 

duration of the deluding karma.

   

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Vinshatirnama-gotrayoh  

_Twenty sagara kotikoti is the maximum duration of the name-karma and the status-determining karma.

   

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Trayastrinshatsagaropamanyayushah

_Thirty-three sagaras is the maximum duration of life karma.

   

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Apara dvadashamuhurta vedaniyasya

_The minimum duration of the feeling-producing karma is twelve muhurtas (one muhurtas is equal to 48 mintues).

   

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Namagotrayorashtau

_The minimum duration of the name-karma and the status-determining karmas is eight muhurtas.

   

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Sheshanamantarmuhurta

_The minimum duration of the rest is one antarmuhurta (one antarmuhurta is almost anything less than one muhurta).

   

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Vipako(a)nubhavah

_Fruition is the ripening or maturing of karmas.

   

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Sa yathanama

_The nature of fruition is according to the names of the karmas.

   

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Tatashcha nirjara

_After fruition (enjoyment), the karmas fall off or disappear. This is called savipak nirjara. The karmas can also be made to rise and disassociate from the soul through penance and this is called avipak nirjara.

   

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Namapratyayah sarvato yogavisheshatsukshmaikakshe-travagahasthitah sarvatmapradesheshvanantananta-pradeshah

_The karmic molecules of infinite times infinite space-points always pervade in a subtle form the entire space-points of every soul in every birth. And these are absorbed by the soul because of its activity.

   

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Sadvedya-subhayurnama-gotrani punyam

_The good variety of feeling-producing karmas and the auspicious life, name and status-determining karmas constitute merit (punya).

   

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Ato(a)nyatpapam

_The remaining varieties of karma constitute demerit.


 

BONDAGE OF KARMA

Causes of bondage of karma are:

deluded perception,

vowlessness,

lack of conscientiousness,

passion, and

activities of body, speech and mind.


Bondage and Its Phases:

Bondage is defined as the assimilation of material particles which are fit to form karmas, by soul, owing to the soul having passions.

There are four phases of bonding of karmic matter:

Nature (species) of karma,

duration of bondage,

intensity of bondage, and

quantity of karmic particles.


The species of karma are:

Perception obscuring,

knowledge obscuring,

feeling producing,

deluding,

life span determining,

physique determining,

status determining and

obstructing.


There are maturing and fruition of karma.

The karma particles fall off after fruition.


Meritorious karmas are:

pleasant feeling producing karma,

good life span determining karma,

good physique determining karma and

good status determining karma.