Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva).
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Some ignorant persons, who do not know (what) soul (is), and yet declare
other (than soul to be the) soul, describe soul as (if it were identical
with) attachment (to worldly objects), and (as) Karma.
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Others consider the intense or mild action of the feelings of attachment
as soul and others (consider) quasi-Karmas as soul.
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Others (consider) the operation of Karma as soul, (and others consider
that) soul is that which is (the result of) the intense and mild qualities
of the fruition of Karmas.
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Others believe soul to be both the soul and Karmas combined together, and
some believe the soul to be the result of the combination of Karmas.
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Thus, in many ways, (persons) of perverse intellect call the soul other (han
itself). (Such persons) re therefore classed by the knowers of Reality as
(those who) describe the non-soul as soul.
Gathas 44 to 48
describe a few wrongs an perverse views about the nature of soul.
Practically all that is said in these views can apply to a mundane,
imperfect, impure soul, while as a matter of fact this weak deluded
embodied soul is a miserable shadow of the great life which the SOUL in
matter made up of very fine karmic molecules. Physical bodies are formed
of physical or Aharaka molecules, and are also matter. Attachment, etc.,
all passionate thought-activities and their mild or strong characters are
due to the effect of deluding karma, which is also matter. The operation
of all Karmas or its mild or strong fruitiness also material.
Thus, he who
believes these matter-born and material cuases and effect to be of the
essence of soul cannot be a true knower and seer of the reality of the
The object of
emphasizing the reality of the soul is that if we clearly understand our
true nature, much of the bitterness, selfishness, cruelty, injustice,
narrowness, crime, immorality, sin and suffering will be removed; we shall
rise hgh above our impure and contaminating surroundings, and in our daily
worldly lives shall be enabled o conduct ourselves so that ultimate
liberation will be assured, and the world will be turned into a stage for
the attainment of Godhood.
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(It is) said by the Perfect Conqueror that all these conditions are
produced by the operation of material Karmas. How can they be called
contemplated by the last Gathas are quite material and the soul is fire of
all material impurities. Its pure reality, in tis real essence, has
already been discussed in the first chapter.
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The Conquerors say (that) all he eight kinds of Karmas are all material.
What is called pain is the (resulting) fruit of their maturity.
disappointment, disease, death, etc., are material from the real
standpoint, because they are the result of karmic matter. Here the
operative thought-activity of the soul is also called material, as being
the result of material Karma. All the impure conditions of a mundane soul
are due to the operation of eight kinds of Karmas. Their fruition, on
maturity, is what we all pain, because the soul is thereby obstructed from
enjoying true and independent happiness born in the realization of self,
shorn of interruptions, for all itme. Only a soul free from the eight
Karmas is always happy and perfect. There are eight Karmas of which the
following four are called destructive (Ghativya):ï¿½(1) knowledge obscuring
which prevents knowledge, (2) conation_obscuring which prevents conation,
(3) deluding Karmas which delude right belief and right conduct, (4)
obstructive, which prevent the manifestation soul-powr. The other four are
called non-destructive (Aghatiya). They are (1) feeling Karma, which
brings about desirable and undesirable objects of
pleasure-and-pain-feeling, (2) age karma, which determines the duration of
the soulï¿½s imprisonment in a condition of life, (3) body-making Karma
which determines the formation of beautiful or ugly body, (4)
family-determining Karma which invests the mundane soul with a high or low
position or status. The most harmful of the 8 is the deluding karma, which
deludes the soul from right belief and right conduct. One who subdues
delusion conquers all the 8 karmas and become a perfect conqueror.
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All these thought-activities, attachment, etc., (are) souls. This has been
described by the Conquerors as a statement from the practical standpoint.
If a question
is reaised: Attachment and all other thought activities having been
described in Jain Scriptures as due to the soulï¿½s modifications whilehere
they are said not to belong to the soul, why should there be such
different opinions on the same subject? The Acharya answers: ï¿½Here they
have been said to be material and not belonging to the soul, from the real
point of view. Only from the practical standpoint, we can ascribe these
material and impure though-activities to the soul. Both opinions are
correct, but each from its own different standpoint.ï¿½
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From the practical standpoint the remark is made of (his) military forces;
ï¿½the king has gone outï¿½ (although not ) the king only (but also his
military forces are) gone out (with him).
It is from the
practical point of view a mere attribution of soul, its base
accompaniment. Really otherwise the soul, pure, and in the full possession
of its essential self, stands out alone. In common parlance, for instance,
we speak of the king going out, though it would not be without many others
going out with him.