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Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

INTRODUCTION

I. Samayasara Samayaprabharitam
II. Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva)
III. The Ethic of Action
IV. Demerit and Merit (Punya Papa)
  V. Inflow of Karmas
  VI. Checking of Karmas (Samvara)
  VII. The shedding of Karmas (Nirjara)
  VIII. Bondage  (Bandha)
  IX. Liberation (Moksha)
  X. Liberation Pure bsolute Knowledge
  XI. Samayasara

Chapter XI  - Samayasara

 

 

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          351.          Know that person to be of perverse belief and not of the Arhat (faith), who think is that the self-same person who performs an action must have the effect (of that action).

 

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          352.          One performs, and another suffers or enjoys (the effect of that action). He who believes thus should be known as a \wrong-believers, and not of the Arhat (faith).

 

Commentary.

          Some persons believe the soul to be transient an others say that tit is unchangeable. Both views as absolute are wrong. Under such belief, no one will strive for freedom. Thought of impermanence will made a man hopeless. The impossibility of change will make one irresponsible. Both views are correct from their respective points.

 

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          353.          If the right-belief-deluding Karma makes a soul a wrong believer, then the unconscious karmic matter, according to thee, will certainly become the doer.

 

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          354.          If right-belief-deluding Karma or right-belief clouded-with-slight-wrong-belief (Karma) makes the soul a slightly-faulty-right-believer, then the unconscious Karmi matter, according to thee, will certainly become the doer.

 

Commentary.

          If the soul be taken as quite inactive, and the impure activity of the soul be ascribed to change effect4d by material Karma, then matter will be the active cause like a conscious being. This is impossible. No one cancause any substance to modify if it has not the capacity of modification.

 

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          355.          Or (if) this soul causes wrong belief in material substance, then the material substance (ill become) a wrong believer and not the soul.

 

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          356.          Or if the soul and Prakriti (Karmi matter) cause matter-substance to be wrong belief, then being produced by the two, both of them will bear the fruit of it.

 

Commentary

          The proposition that soul and Karmic matter combineduase matter-substance to turn into wrong belief, is also untenable. The reason is that matter by its very nature of inertness is incapable of sufferings any consequence, sinful or meritorious.

         

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          357.          Neither Prakriti (Matter) nor soul causes the material substance to be wrong belief. Is it not certainly wrong that material substance is wrong belief?

 

Commentary.

          Again, if one propounds the theory that neither soul nor Karma makes a matter substance to be modified into wrong belief, his previous proposition that matter alone is wrong belief is refuted.

          Wrong belief here means the thought-activity, which is the auxiliary cause of karmic matter being bound with the soul. For the point of view of the soul, the primary cause of wrong belief is the soul itself, i.e., its thought activity and the auxiliary cause is matter. But from the material point of view, the bondage which we call wrong belief is primarily matter and the soul�s thought activity is only its auxiliary cause.

 

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          358-361.   And (if) by Karmas, (the soul) is made ignorant; and also (is made) the knower by the Karmas, (and) it is caused to sleep by the Karmas, and also it is awakened by the Karmas. By the Karmas (the soul) is made happy, and similarly by the Karmas (it) is made miserable. And by the Karmas only, (it) is brought to wrong-belief, and also to Vowlessness. By the Karmas (it) is made to wander in the upper, lower, and also in the middle universe, an also by the Karmas is caused all good or bad whatever. The karma does the Karma gives and takes away anything whatsoever; then all souls will become actionless.

 

Commentary.

          According to the Sankhya system souls are inactive, and Prakriti only is the active agent. The truth, however, is that an impure soul invites impure thought activity. The operation of material Karmas is merely an auxiliary cause. An inactive soul can never be responsible for any action and can never enjoy the fruit of its action.