Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Mangalasutra - Precepts On The Auspicious

Jinasasanasutra - Precepts On Jina's Teachings
Sanghasutra - Precepts Of Religious Order
Nirupanasutra - Precepts On Scriptural Exposition
Samsaracakrasutra - Precepts On the Transmigratory cycle
  Karmasutra - Precepts On Karms
  Mithyatvasutra - Precepts On Wrong Faith
  Raga-pariharasutra - Precepts On Renunciation Of Attachment
  Dharmasutra - Precepts On religion
  Samyamasutra - Precepts On Self-Restraint
  Aparigrahasutra - Precepts On Non-Possessiveness
  Ahimsasutra - Precepts On Non-Violence
  Apramadasutra - Precepts On Vigilance
  Siksasutra - Precepts On Education
  Atmasutra - Precepts On Soul
  Moksamargasutra - Precepts On The Path Of Liberation
  Ratnatrayasutra - Precepts On Three Jewels
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra - Precepts Of Right Faith
  Samyagjnanasutra - Precepts On Right Knowledge
  Samyakcaritrasutra - Precepts On Right Conduct
  Sadhanasutra - Precepts On spiritual Realization
  Dvividha Dharmasutra - Precepts On the Two Paths of Relitgion
  Sravakadharmasutra - Precepts on householders's Religion
  Sramanadharmasutra - Precepts On Religion Of Monks
  Vratasutra - The Precepts On Vows
  Samiti-Guptisutra - Precepts On Carefulness (Samiti) and Self-Control (Gupti)
  Avasyakasutra - Precepts On Obligatory Duties
  Tapasutra - Precepts on Penance
  Dhyanasutra - Precepts On Meditation
  Anupreksasutra - Precepts On Reflection
  Lesyasutra - Precept On Soul-Colouring (Lesyas)
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
Precepts On Spiritual Progress (Gunasthanas)
  Samlekhanasutra - Precepts On Passionless Deaths
  Tattvasutra - Precepts On Fundamental Truths
  Dravysutra - Precepts On The Substance
  Srstisutra - Precepts On Universe
  Anekantasutra - The Precepts On Non-Absolutism
  Pramanasutra - Precepts On Valid Knowledge
  Nayasutra - Precepts On View-Point
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra - Syadvada & Sptabhangi Sutra
  Samanvayasutra - Precepts On Reconciliation
  Niksepasutra - Precepts Of Installation
  Samapana Conclusion
  Virastavana Hymn To Mahavira

4. Nirupanasutra - Precepts On Scriptural Exposition

 

 

Jo na pamananayehim, nikkhevenam nirikkhade attham.

Tassajuttam juttam, juttamjuttam ca padihadi. (32)

To one, who does not ascertain the meaning (of a word) by Pramana, Naya and Niksepa, appears what is proper to be improper and what is improper to proper. (32)

 

Nanam hodi pamanam, nao vi nadussa hidayabhavattho.

Nikkheo vi uvao, juttie atthapadigahanam. (33)

Knowledge is pramana : naya is view-point of the knower, the way of knowing is called Niksepa i.e. reasoning to understand the proper meaning of the text. (33)

 

Nicchayavavaharanaya, mulabheya nayana savvanam.

Nicchayasahanaheum, pajjayadavvatthiyam munaha. (34)

 

The real point of view (Niscaya-naya) and the empirical point of view (vyavahara-naya) are the two fundamental types of view-points (nayas). The dravyarthika naya (substantial point of view) and the paryayarthika-naya or the modal point of view are the two means for comprehending the real nature of a thing. (34)

 

Jo siya bheduvayaram, dhammanam kunai egavatthussa.

So vavaharo bhaniyo, vivario nicchayo hoi. (35)

The empirical point of view (or the Vyavahara-naya) is fragmentary i. e. it does take a thing as whole but concentrates on its units only. The opposite of it is called the real view-point which takes a comprehensive view and takes into consideration the thing as a whole. (35)

 

Vavharenuvadissai, nanissa carittam damsanam nanam.

Na vi nanam na carittam, na damsanam Janago suddho. (36)

From the stand-point of vyavahara-naya it is said that a knower is possessed of conduct, faith and knowledge, but in fact (that is, from the stand-point of niscaya-naya) he possesses neither knowledge nor conduct, nor faith but is purely of the form of a knower. (36)

 

Evam vavaharanao, padisiddho jana nicchayanayena.

Nicchayanayasida puna, munino pavanti nivvanam. (37)

Know that the empirical point of view is contradicted by the real point of view. The saints who take recourse to the real point of view (Niscaya-Naya) attain salvation. (37)

 

Jaha na vi sakkamanajjo, anajjabhasam vina u gaheum.

Taha vavaharena vina, paramatthuvaesanamasakkam. (38)

Just as it is impossible to explain things to a non-Arya without taking recourse to a non-Aryan language, similarly it is impossible to explain the ultimate truth without taking recourse to vyavahara-naya. (38)

 

Vavaharo'bhuyattho, bhuyattho desido du suddhanao.

Bhuyatthamassido khalu, sammaitthi havai jivo. (39)

It is said that the empirical point of view does not explain reality as it is, while the real point of view explains it as it is. He' who takes recourse to the reality as it is, attains the right faith. (39)

 

Nicchayamavalambanta, nicchayato nicchayam ajananta.

Nisanti caranakaranam, bahirakaranalasa kei. (40)

Those who have recourse to the real point of view only and does not know it correctly, being negligent regarding to the minor rule of external conduct spoil the whole discipline i,. e. major and minor code of conduct. (40)

 

Suddho suddhadeso, nayavvo paramabhavadarisihim.

Vavaharadesida puna, je du aparame tthida bhave. (41)

Reality can be understood properly by those who have realized the highest truth: but for those who are in a lower state it is proper to expound the reality through the empirical point of view. (41)

 

Nicchayao dunneyam, ko bhave kammi vattai samano.

Vavaharao ya kirai, jo puvvatthio crittammi. (42)

 

Verily, it is very difficult to know the mental states of monks; therefore the criterion of senionrity in the order of monks should be decided by practical vie-point i.e. standing monkhood. (42)

 

Tamha savve vi naya, micchaditthi sapakkhapadibaddha.

Annonnanissiya una, havanti sammattasabbava. (43)

Hence all the nayas (view-points), so long as they remain confined to their own respective stand-points, are perverted, but when they are mutually dependent on one another, they verily become true. (43)

 

Kajjam nanadiyam, ussaggavavayao bhave saccam.

Tam taha samayaramto, tam saphalam hoi savvam pi. (44)

Conduct, knowledge atc. are right one when they satisfy general rules as well as the exceptional conditions. They should be practised in such a manner that they become fruitful. (44)