Jam nanina viyappam,
Tam iha nayam pauttam, nani
puna tena nanena. (690)
The thought activity which
grasps only one aspect of an object with the aid of scriptures, is called
Naya. He who possesses such knowledge is wise. (690)
Jamha na naena vina, hoi
Tamha so bohavvo, eyamtam
Since without a (knowledge
of) naya a man cannot have a knowledge of syadvada (the doctrine of
conditional statement). A knowledge of naya can be had by one who is
desirous of destroying all the extremes. (691)
tanhacheyam jalena jaha rahido.
Taha iha vamchai mudho,
nayarahio davvanicchiti. (692)
Just as an irreligious person
desired to attain bliss without practising religion or a thirsty person
desires to quench his thirst without using water, similarly the fool desires
to determine the nature of a substance without taking recourse to naya.
Davvatthio ya pajjavanao, ya
sesa viyappa sim. (693)
The entire body of the
teachings of Tirthankara taken in its entirely and taken in its particular
details is to be explained with the help of two basic standpoints (nayas)-viz
that substantial point of view (dravyarthikanaya) and that modificational
point of view (paryayarthikanaya). The rest of them are the offshoots of
these two. (693)
avatthu niyamena pajjavanayassa.
avatthumeva davvatthiyanayassa. (694)
What is said from the
substantial view-point appears, as a rule, unreal from the modal view-point.
Similarly what is said from the modal view-point appears unreal from the
substantial view-point. (694)
Uppajjamti viyamti ya,
bhava niyamena pajjavanayassa.
Davvatthiyassa savvam, saya
From the modal view-point,
things necessarily originate and perish. But from the substantial
view-point, there is neither origination nor destruction. (695)
davvam tam pajjayatthiena puno.
Havadi ya annamanannam,
takkale tammayattado. (696)
From substantial point of
view, everything is of the form of substance (always remaining the same),
but from modal view-point every thing differs from time to time. From each
particular stand-point, a thing appears to its corresponding form. (696)
Pajjaya gaunam kicca,
davvam pi ya jo hu ginhai loe.
So davvatthiya bhanio,
vivario pajjayatthinao. (697)
The stand-point which gives
secondary status to the modes and only grasps the substance, is called
substantial view-point, while the opposite to it is called modal view-point.
Negama-samgaha-vavahara-ujjusue ceva hoi bodhavva.
Sadde ya samabhirudhe,
evambhue ya mulanaya. (698)
Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara,
rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha and evambhuta-these are the seven basic
pajjayagahi ya iyara je bhaniya.
Te cadu atthapahana,
saddapahana hu tinni ya. (699)
The first three fall under
the category of substantial view-point, while the remaining four come under
the modal view-point. Among these seven, the first four give eminence to
meaning, while the remaining three to the word. (699)
Jam tehim minai to, negamo
nao negamano tti. (700)
Naigam Naya deals with both
the aspects of a thing, that is, generic as well as specific aspects, as the
case might be, in order to know this, it knows the thing in its various
vattanakale du jam samacaranam.
Tam bhuyanigamanayam, jaha
ajjadinam nivvuo viro. (701)
Naigam Naya is of three
kinds, according to the three tenses. The past, the present and the future.
Paraddha ja kiriya,
payanavihanadi kahai jo siddham.
Loe ya pucchamane, tam
bhannai vattamananayam. (702)
To describe the work as "has
been done" when asked, the moment it has been started, is known as the
Vartamana Naigam Naya, for, example the food is said to have been cooked
when the coooking has just been started. (702)
bhavipadattham naro anipannam.
Appatthe jaha pattham,
bhannai so bhavi naigamo tti nao. (703)
To say that an act, which is
to be performed in future has been completed, though incomplete is an
example of Bhavisya Naigam Naya e.e. when a person is about to start, we say
"he has gone". (703)