(A) Pancavidha Jnana
Five Kinds Of Knowledge
Gahanam sammam nanam,
sayaramaneyabheyam tu. (674)
Such a grasping of the nature
of itself and that of other things, as is free from doubt, mistake and
uncertainty is called the right cognition; it is of a determinate form and
is of various types. (674)
Tattha pamcaviham nanam,
Ohinanam tu taiyam, manananam
ca kevalam. (675)
The knowledge is of five
kinds: Mati-Jnana i.e., knowledge derived through the five senses and the
mind Sruta-jnana i.e. knowledge obtained from the scriptures, Avadhi-Jnana
(clairvoyance) Manahaparya-Jnana i.e. telepathy and Kevala-Jnana i.e.
Pamceva homti nana,
madisudaohimanam ca kevalayam.
kevalananam have khaiyam. (676)
Knowledge is thus of five
kinds: sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, telepathy and
omniscience. The first four result from substance cum annihilation of the
relevant Karmas, while omniscience result after total annihilation of
Iha apoha vimamsa, maggana
Sanna sati mati panna, savvam
Reflection on what has been
perceived, reasoning, questioning, examining, searching, understanding and
judging these are the varieties of sensory knowledge. (677)
atthamtaramuvalambhe tam bhananti suyananam.
ya saddayam mulam. (678)
Sruta-Jnana is said to
consist in comprehenstion of the meaning of words that are heard or it is
derived from the senses and the mind and it as a rule is born of words.
bhavasuyam mai sesam. (679)
The knowledge which is
required through the senses and the mind by hearing or reading the scriptue
and which is capable of expressing its content is called Bhava-srutajnana,
the rest of the knowledge (acquired through thought-activities and the
senses) is matijnana. (679)
Maipuvvam suyamuttam, na
mai suyapuvviya viseso'yam.
jam mai tassa. (680)
The Srutajnana is acquired
through matijnana while the matijnana is not acquired through Srutajnana,
but in the act of fortering thoughts, it is the characteristic of matijnana
that it precedes the Srutajnana. (680)
simananetti vanniyam samae.
tamohinana tti nam bimti. (681)
The type of cognition which
limits the (direct) knowledge is called (Avadhi-Jnana) i.e., clairvoyance,
in the scriptures, it is also called simajnana i.e. .imited cognition. This
avadhi-jnana is of two types - viz. one that is born on account of a certain
type of birth and one that is born on account of the practice of certain
various qualities. (681)
addham cimtiya aneyabheyagayam.
Manapajjava tti nanam, jam
janai tam tu naraloe. (682)
In this world of human
beings, that type of cognition is called manahaparyayajnana, which
comprehends other's thought, that is already entertained, that is not yet
entertained or that is only half entertained, and so on. It is of many
sagalamasaharanam anamtam ca.
Payam ca nanasaddo,
That type of cognition which
is one, pure, perfect, extra-ordinary, endless, is called Kevalajnana, and
here as usual the generic word jnana is to be added to the specific word
denotative of a particular jnana Type. (683)
logamalogam ca savvao savvam.
Tam natthi jam na pasai,
bhuyam bhavvam bhavissam ca. (684)
Kevala-Jnana grasps in one
sweep all that is in this universe and beyond the universe in its entirety;
certainly, there is nothing in the past, future and the present which is not
grasped by this type of cognition. (684)
Precepts On Direct And
aviruddham sammaruvam jam nanam.
Bhaniyam khu tam pamanam,
That cognition which grasps
the nature of things in a proper and uncontradicted form is called pramana;
it is of two types-viz. Pratyaksa (direct) and paroksa (indirect). (685)
Tam pai vattai nanam, je
paccakkham tayam tiviham. (686)
The word `aksa' means a soul
either because it covers the entire range of the things or because it enjoys
these things (the tow meanings depending on two different etymologies of the
word `aksa' and the type of cognition, which is had be an aksa is called
pratyaksa; it is of three sub-types. (686)
Akkhassa poggalakaya, jam
davvindiyamana para tenam.
Tehim ot jam nanam,
parokkhamiha tamanumanam va. (687)
The physical sense-organs and
the internal organ i.e. mind, are something alien to an aksa or self, and
the type and the type of cognition had through the instrumentality of these
two is called paroksa-just like inferential cognition. (687)
Homti parokkham mai-suyaim
Puvvovaladdhasambamdha-saranao vanumanam va. (688)
The two cognitions mati and
sruta are paroksa i.e. indirect because they are acquired by a soul through
the instrumentality of something alien to itself or because they are born of
the memory of relationship grasped earlier, just like inferential cognition.
limgiyamohaiyam ca paccakkham.
Imdiyamanobhavam jam, tam
In a real sense, the
cognition acquired through the other sources is paroksa i.e. indirect while
cognition acquired directly by the soul is pratyaksa. But the cognition,
born of a sense-organ is `pratyaksa' practically so called. (689)