Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Mangalasutra - Precepts On The Auspicious

Jinasasanasutra - Precepts On Jina's Teachings
Sanghasutra - Precepts Of Religious Order
Nirupanasutra - Precepts On Scriptural Exposition
Samsaracakrasutra - Precepts On the Transmigratory cycle
  Karmasutra - Precepts On Karms
  Mithyatvasutra - Precepts On Wrong Faith
  Raga-pariharasutra - Precepts On Renunciation Of Attachment
  Dharmasutra - Precepts On religion
  Samyamasutra - Precepts On Self-Restraint
  Aparigrahasutra - Precepts On Non-Possessiveness
  Ahimsasutra - Precepts On Non-Violence
  Apramadasutra - Precepts On Vigilance
  Siksasutra - Precepts On Education
  Atmasutra - Precepts On Soul
  Moksamargasutra - Precepts On The Path Of Liberation
  Ratnatrayasutra - Precepts On Three Jewels
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra - Precepts Of Right Faith
  Samyagjnanasutra - Precepts On Right Knowledge
  Samyakcaritrasutra - Precepts On Right Conduct
  Sadhanasutra - Precepts On spiritual Realization
  Dvividha Dharmasutra - Precepts On the Two Paths of Relitgion
  Sravakadharmasutra - Precepts on householders's Religion
  Sramanadharmasutra - Precepts On Religion Of Monks
  Vratasutra - The Precepts On Vows
  Samiti-Guptisutra - Precepts On Carefulness (Samiti) and Self-Control (Gupti)
  Avasyakasutra - Precepts On Obligatory Duties
  Tapasutra - Precepts on Penance
  Dhyanasutra - Precepts On Meditation
  Anupreksasutra - Precepts On Reflection
  Lesyasutra - Precept On Soul-Colouring (Lesyas)
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
Precepts On Spiritual Progress (Gunasthanas)
  Samlekhanasutra - Precepts On Passionless Deaths
  Tattvasutra - Precepts On Fundamental Truths
  Dravysutra - Precepts On The Substance
  Srstisutra - Precepts On Universe
  Anekantasutra - The Precepts On Non-Absolutism
  Pramanasutra - Precepts On Valid Knowledge
  Nayasutra - Precepts On View-Point
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra - Syadvada & Sptabhangi Sutra
  Samanvayasutra - Precepts On Reconciliation
  Niksepasutra - Precepts Of Installation
  Samapana Conclusion
  Virastavana Hymn To Mahavira

28. Tapasutra - Precepts on Penance

 

 

(A) Bahyatapa

External Penance

 

Jattha kasayaniroho, bambham jinapuyanam anasanam ca.

So savvo ceva tavo, visesao muddhaloyammi. (439)

Everything celibacy, worship of Jina and fasting done to check the passions is penance;specially according to the simple people. (439)

 

So tavo duviho vutto, bahirabbhamtaro taha.

Bahiro chavviho vutto, evamabbhamtaro tavo. (440)

That penance is said to be of two types viz., external and internal. The external penance is again of six types, and so is internal penance. (440)

 

Anasanamunoyariya, bhikkhayariya ya rasapariccao.

Kaakileso samlinaya ya, bajjho tavo hoi. (441)

(1) Fasting, (2) eating less than one's normal diet, (3) begging for alms (4) giving up of delicacies. (5) mortification of body, (6) lonely residence, these are the external penances. (441)

 

Kammana nijjarattham, aharam pariharei lilae.

Egadinadipamanam, tassa tavam anasanam hodi. (442)

He who voluntarily gives up food for a day or so, for purging the soul from Karmas practises the external penance of fasting. (442)

 

Je payanubhattapana, suyaheu te tavassino samae.

Jo a tavo suyahino, bahirayo so chuhaharo. (443)

A monk who takes a little food for undertaking study of scriptures is said to be a tapasvi (i.e., one practising the penance), according to scriptures. The penance of fasting without scriptural study amounts only to starving. (443)


So nama anasanatavo, jena mano'mamgulam na cittei.

Jena na imdiyahani, jena ya joga na hayamti. (444)

Fasting is penance when the person observing it does not entertain any inauspicious thoughts, when it does not result in bodily weakness, and when the activities of mind, speech and body remain unimpaired. (444)

 

Balam thamam ca pehatye, saddhamaroggamappano.

Khettam kalam ca vinnaya, tahappanam nijumjae. (445)

A person should decide upon fasting after taking into consideration his physical strength, stamina, faith, state of health, place and time. (445)

 

Uvasamano akkhanam, uvavaso vannido samasena.

Tamha bhumjamta vi ya, jidimdiya homti uvavasa. (446)

In short, subjugation of senses is also described as fasting; therefore those who have conquered their senses are said to be fasting, though they maybe taking food. (446)

 

Chatthatthamadasamaduvalasehim, abahusuyassa ja sohi.

Tatto bahutaraguniya, havijja jimiyassa nanissa. (447)

The purity (of self) achieved by one who is wellversed in scriptures, though regularly takes food, would be many times more than the purity of a person who is ignorant of scriptures, though he may fast for two, three, four or five days. (447)

 

Jo jassa u aharo, tatto omam tu jo kare.

Jahannenegastthai, evam davvena u bhave. (448)

A person, who takes food less even by a morsel than his usual diet, is said to practise penance called formal unodari (partial fasting). (448)

 

Goyarapamanadayaga-bhayanananavidhana jam gahanam.

Taha esanassa gahanam, vividhassa ya vuttiparisamkha. (449)

If one procures alms after having taken various sorts of decisions as to their amount, their donor, their containing-vessel or as to their various types of contents, one performs the penance called vittiparisankhyana i. e. limiting the things begged for. (449)

 

Khiradahisappimai, paniyam panabhoyanam.

Parivajjanam rasanam tu, bhaniyam rasavivajjanam. (450)

A monk who avoids delicious food like milk, curds, butter and taking his food on leaf, practises the penance of rasaparityaga (renunciation of delicious dishes). (450)

 

Egamtamanavae, itthipasuvivajjie.

Sayanasanasevanaya, vivittasayanasanam. (451)

The penance of having his bed and seat in a solitary and unfrequented place, shunned by women and animals, is called Viviktasayyasana (i.e. solitary residence). (451)

 

Thana virasanaiya, jivassa u suhavaha.

Ugga jaha dharijjamti, kayakilesam tamahiyam. (452)

Adapting harsh bodily postures like virasana etc. which cause bliss in a soul, constitute the penance called kayaklesa (mortification of body). (452)


Suhena bhavidam nanam, duhe jade vinassadi.

Tamha jahabalam joi, appa dukkhehi bhavae. (453)

The knowledge acquired at a time when one experiences convenience vanishes away when one begins to experience inconvenience. Hence (at the time of acquiring knowledge) a yogin ought to put himself to inconvenience keeping in mind his capacity for tolerance. (453)

 

Na dukkham na sukham va vi, jahahetu tigicchiti.

Tigicchie sujuttassa, dukkham va jai va suham.

Mohakkhae u juttassa, dukkham va jai va suham.

Mohakkhae jahaheu, na dukkham na vi va suham. (454 & 455)

Neither an experience of pain nor an experience of pleasure is an appropriate cause for curing an ailment but one who conducts one's life well, gets cured either by way of pain or by way of pleasure. Likewise, one engaged in putting an end to one's delusion might experience either pain or pleasure but neither pain nor pleasure is what puts an end to one's delusion. (454 & 455)