Eight Mother Precepts
uccare samii iya.
kayagutti ya atthama. (384)
Vigilance in walk, speech,
begging alms, receiving and keeping down of things and excreting are five
Samitis (acts of carefulnes): control of mind, control of speech and control
of body (i.e. actions) are three guptis. All are eight in number. (384)
Edao attha pavayanamadao
Rakkhamti sada munino,
mada puttam va payadao. (385)
These eight are called
pravacanamata (mother precepts). Just as a diligent mother protects her son,
so they protect right knowledge, right faith and right conduct of the monk.
Eyao pamca samiio,
caranassa ya pavattane.
Gutti niyattane vutta,
asubhatthesu savvaso. (386)
The five types of vigilances
are meant for the practice of religious life and the three controls (guptis)
for the prevention of every thing sinful. (386)
Jaha guttassiriyai, na
homti dosa taheva samiyassa.
rumbhai samu sacetthassa. (387)
Just as one who practises the
gupti is not touched by defects pertaining to Samiti so also one who
practises the samiti; does not have the defects of gupti. Certainly a gupti
puts an act of negligence on the part of one who is undertaking an activity,
to an end. (387)
Maradu va jiyadu va jivo,
ayadacarassa nicchida himsa.
Payadassa natthi bandho,
himsamettena samidisu. (388)
The person who is careless in
his activities is certainly guilty of violence irrespective of whether a
living being remains alive or dies; on the other hand, th4e person who is
careful in observing tghe samitis experiences no karmic bondage simply
because some killing has not taken place in connection with his activities.
Ahacca himsa samitassa ja
tu, sa davvato hoti na bhavato u.
Bhavena himsa tu asamjatassa,
je va vi satte na sada vadheti.
Sampatti tasseva jada
bhavijja, sa davvahimsa khalu bhavato ya.
na hojja, vadhena jogo duhato va'himsa. (389 & 390)
A monk who is observing the
Samitis i.e. vigilant about his activities may commit himsa (injury) through
oversight; in such a case, there is only external violence (Dravya-Himsa)
and not the internal. On the other hand a negligent person is guilty of the
internal violence (Bhava-Himsa) even though no external violence is caused
by him by killing being. When an injury is caused through negligence of a
person, whether he is ascetic or not there will be both types of violence
external (physical) as well as internal (mental). A monk firm in his
observance of the samitis will not cause nay violence because of the purity
of his soul; there will be neither external violence nor internal violence.
(389 & 390)
Abadhejja kulimgi, marijja
Na hi tagghadanimitto, bandho
suhumo vi desio samae.
Muccha pariggaho tti ya,
ajjhappa pamanado bhanido.(391 & 392)
If a tiny living creature is
accidentally crushed under the foot of a monk who is careful in respect of
his movement, the scriptures state that he will not attract even the
slightest of karmac bondage (i.e. he is not responsible for that violence).
Just as possessiveness consists in a sese of attachment so the violence
consists in the intention of killing. (391 & 392)
Pauminipattam va jaha,
udayena na lippadi sinehagunajutta.
Taha samidihim na
lippai, sadhu kaesu iriyamto. (393)
Just as a lotus-leaf
possessing the property of smoothness in not touched by water; similarly a
monk practising samitis is not touched by karmic bondage in the course of
moving around in the midst of living beings. (393)
Jayana u dhammajanani,
jayana dhammassa palani ceva.
egamtasuhavaha jayana. (394)
Carefulness (Yatana) is the
mother of religion; it is also the protector of religion; it helps the
growth of religion and it begets perfect happiness. (394)
Jayam care jayam citthe,
jayamase jayam sae.
bhasamto, pavam kammam na bandhai. (395)
A monk who moves cautiously,
stands cautiously, sits cautiously, sleeps cautiously, eats cautiously and
speaks cautiously would not be bounded by the evil karmas. (395)
Acts of Carefulness
pariharamteniriyasamidi have gamanam. (396)
Iryasamiti consists in
walking along a trodden path during day-time when required to move out for
any work, looking ahead to a distance of four cubits and avoiding the
killing of tiny living creatures. (396)
sajjhayam ceva pamcaha.
uvautte iriyam rie. (397)
Not paying attention to the
objects of sensuous enjoyment and not taking up the study of five types, one
should walk cautiously absorbing oneself in the task of walking and giving
all out prominence to the task of walking. (397)
Note:- The five-fold
methods of study are: Reading of sacred texts (vacana), questioning the
teacher (prcchana), revision by re-reading (paravartana), pondering over
what has already been studied and learnt (anupreksa) and reading
illustrative strories (dharmakatha).
Tam ujjuam na gacchijja,
jayameva parakkame. (398)
Similarly, one ought not to
walk on straight within the midst of such livintg beings of all sorts as
have gathered together (on the wayside) with a view to feeding themselves:
this is how one ought to move cautiously. (398)