VI.31. Where it is
certain that (Hetu) is in (Vipaksa)
(we have the fallacy of Nischita
hetvabhasa), e.g. "Sound is perishable because
it is knowable like a pitcher.
Because it (the quality of
knowability) is ascertained in things like
Akasa which are imperishable.
VI.33. Where the
matter is involved in doubt (we have the fallacy of
vritti e.g. an omniscient being does not exist for he can speak.
Because there is no opposition of being able to
speak with omniscience.
consists of (use of) hetu (middle term) in
connection with a Sadhya (major term) which
had already been established and which is opposed by
of being heard by the ear is established regarding sound, as it is sound.
VI.37. Because (Hetu) does
not do anything (in such a case).
VI.38. As for
example, fire is cold as this a thing. In such cases (Hetu)
cannot do anything.
This fault arises only in definition. For in
use by those conversant its reasoning, the fault is proved by fault of
Paksa (minor term).
VI.40. Fallacies of
Dristanta (illustration) in
Anvaya consists of non-establishment of
Sadhya, Sadhana or
both of them.
VI.41. Sound is
unproduced by man because it has no form like
sensual pleasure, atom or pitcher.
Viparitanvaya also: "That which is
unproduced by man has no form".
Because this will be applied in lightening etc.
Siddha and the Vyatirekas
of the same, like atom, sensual pleasure and Akasa.
the quality of not being without form, is not
unproduced by man.
The fallacy of
Bala-prayoga consists of absense of one
of the five limbs (of syllogism).
This place is full of fire as it is full of
smoke. Where there is smoke there is fire. As for
example, a kitchen.
Or, this is full of smoke.
So it is full of fire and it is full of smoke.
VI.50. As clear
understanding of the real thing is not established from it.
VI.51. Fallacy of
Agama arises from words of a person seized by attachment, hatred, mistake
VI.52. As for
example, Run boys. There are a large quantity
of sweetmeats on the river-bank.
Or, one hundred elephants are standing on the
tip of the finger.
Because (these) want (the element of
Pramana) viz. true knowledge.
Sankhyabhasa (Fallacy of number) is
maintaining `Pratyaksa is the only
according to the view of the followers of Charvaka
philosophy the other world is denied from Pratyaksa
and knowledge of others cannot be derived (from
Pratyaksa), so these cannot be the subject matter of it (Pratyaksa).
Vyapti in case of the followers of the
Buddhist, Sankhya, Nyaya,
Prabhakara (school of
Mimamsa philosophy) and Jaimini (school
of Mimamsa philosophy) who accept
Arthapatti and Abhava exceeding one by
one (in their doctrines respectively).
VI.58. Knowledge of
others being the subject of Anumana etc. will
become another Pramana.
Tarka also being understood from
Vyapti will become another
Pramana. For that which is not
Pramana cannot establish anything.
Because there is a difference according to
difference of illumination.
Visayabhasa (fallacy of object) (happens)
where Samanya or Visesa
or both of them (are) separately (accepted).
VI.62. As it
appears like the same, and as it does not do any work.
VI.63. Accepting it
to be Samartha (effective) will lead to
creation (of result) at all times, being independent.
VI.64. On accepting
dependency on other (causes), the quality of being modified will have to
be accepted as otherwise, this does not exist.
Because, that which is ineffective in itself
cannot cause anything as the former.
Phalabhasa (fallacy of result) is either
separate or not separate from Pramana.
If we accept inseparableness, its (separate)
use cannot happen.
Its imagination by its opposite cannot (be
accepted) for (we) shall have to assume (then) non-result by its opposite
(e.g.) another result.
VI.69. Just as
Apramana is derived from
Pramana by holding the opposite.
So, really there is no difference.
difference (be accepted), it will not be derived as in the case of another
VI.72. There will
be Atiprasanga (if we urge)
Pramana and its Abhasa
being shown as faulty and being made free from or connected with fault
will be Sadhana or its
Abhasa in case of the Vadi and
Dusana (fault) or Bhusana
(adornment) respectively of Prativadi
Other (varieties) which exist, are to be
understood by reasoning (from other works).