III.81. There is no
fire whose potency (Samarthya) has not been
obstructed here, because we do not find smoke.
III.82. There is no
smoke here because there is no fire.
III.83. There will
be no rise of the Rohini after a
Muhurta as we have no knowledge of the rise of
Example is this: It will not be Sunday tomorrow because it is not Saturday
The Bharani had not
risen before a Muhurta because now the
Krittia is not up.
III.85. One pan of
this pair of scales does not touch beam as the other one is on the same
level with it.
the varieties of Viruddha
Anupalabdhi (nonfinding of antithesis)
establishing a Sadhya of
Vidhi (existence of a fact) are being
in Vidhi is of three kinds:-
and Viruddha Svabhava
III.87. As for
example, some disease exists in this animal, because the actions of a
healthy body are not found.
III.88. There is
grief in this creature, because it has no connection with its dear ones.
III.89. All things
are Anekantika (possessed of different
aspects) because we do not find that these have only one aspect.
The Hetus which
arise one after the other should be included within those (which have been
III.91. There was
Sivaka (a clod of earth resembling a
Sivalinga) on this potter's wheel because we
see Sthasa there.
Hetu showing) effect of an effect will be
included within Aviruddha
Karya upalabdhi (as already defined).
III.93. There is no
play of deer in this cave because there is a roar of lion. Here there is
an effect opposed to a cause. This should be (included) within
The use by those who are conversant (with the
process of inference) is from existence or non-existence of that universal
concomitance (between the Sadhya and the
Commentary: It has
already been mentioned (Aphorism 46) that though five parts of
Anumana are used for teaching students, really
there are only two parts of an inference (Aphorism 37). But those who are
conversant with processes of reasoning employ inference through the
knowledge of the existence of Sadhya (e.g.
fire) always along with Sadhana (e.g. smoke)
or the nonexistence of Sadhya where
Sadhana is absent. This is amplified in the
four aphorisms which follow.
This place is full of fire, for existence of
smoke is only possible if there be fire here or (this place is not full of
fire) as smoke does not exist here.
III.96. In the
employment of Hetu, the use of
Vyapti (universal concomitance) is made.
That (Vyapti) is
understood by the persons conversant (with the process of inference) from
it (viz. Hetu) (without use of
The Sadhaya is
established from this (viz. Hetu) only.
So it has been mentioned that it is necessary
to mention Paksa to indicate the
Adhara (abode) of Hetu
consisting of universal concomitance.
III.99. Agama is
knowledge derived from words etc. of a reliable person.
III.100. Words etc.
(signs, symbols and other things of life nature) are causes of knowledge
of things through their inherent power in connoting things.
As for example "The Meru