Sarat Chandra Ghoshal
Praman (valid knowledge)
knowables are rightly ascertained and from
Pramanabhasa (false knowledge), the opposite happens. For this
reason, I shall describe the definitions of these as laid down by
authorities in a concise manner for the benefit of
those who desire a short exposition (of this subject).
Pramana is valid knowledge of itself and of
things not proved before.
Pramana enables acquiring beneficial things
and having non-beneficial objects, this is nothing but knowledge.
That (viz. Pramana)
being opposed to Samaropa (viz. fallacies)
consists of definiteness like Anumana
Apurvartha is that which has not been
I.5. Even an
ascertained thing becomes so (i.e., unascertained) through
The ascertainment of self is the illumination
of it towards itself.
I.7. It becomes its
own object, like other objects.
I.8. I know the
pitcher through myself.
Because (in our knowledge) we have an
understanding of the subject, an instrumental cause and the verb, in the
same manner as the object.
I.10. Just as in the
case of objects, there is understanding of
itself (the knowledge) without utterance of the word (signifying it).
I.11. Who does not
accept it (i.e. knowledge) to be of that manner (i.e. being the
subject-matter of experience) when one admits that in
Pratyaksa the object is illumined by knowledge?
I.12. Like a lamp.
The validity of Pramana
rises from itself or through another (Pramana).