Translated by A.N. Upadhye
Here I pay obeisance to VArdhamana, the saviour, the promulgator of
the law, who is saluted by the suras, Asuras and lords of men,
and who has washed off the dirt of destructive Karmas.
pay obeisance) also to the remaining Tirthankaras (i.e., the
promulgators of the creed) along with all siddhas (i.e., the liberated
souls) whose nature is pure and to the sramanas (i.e., the saints)
whose behaviour is characterised by knowledge, faith, conduct, penance
pay obeisance to them collectively as well as individually and to the
contemporary Arahantas in the Manusa region.
After saluting Arahantas (i.e., Tirthankaras), Siddhas also Ganadharas
(i.e., the direct disciples of Tirthankaras), the band of preceptors
and all the saints, and after having taken tie life (i.e, a state of
life, Asramna) of foremost knowledge and faith of pure nature, I
adopt equanimity whereby Nirvana is attained.
Nirvana, along with the glories of Devas, Asuras and lords of men,
accrues to a soul through conduct pre-eminently characterised by faith
Verily this realisation is the Dharma, which, in turn, is pointed out
as equanimity; and equanimity is the state of the self in which
infatuatory perturbation is absent.
For the time being a substance is said to be constituted of that by
which it is transformed; therefore the self should be recognised as
Dharma, when there is developed the condition of Dharma.
The Soul whose nature is amenable to modification comes to be
auspicious, inauspicious or pure according as it develops auspicious,
inauspicious or pure states (of consciousness).
There is no substance without a modification and no modification
without a substance; the existence of a thing is made up of substance,
quality and modification.
The self that has developed equanimity, if endowed with pure
activities, attains heavenly happiness.
By the rise of inauspicious activities, the soul wanders for long as a
low-graded human being, a sub-human being and a hellish one being
subject for ever to thousands of miseries.
The happiness of those who are famous for their pure consciousness or
serenity is transcendental, born from the self, supersensuous,
incomparable, infinite and indestructible.
That Sramana, who has well understood all things and the texts that
explain them, who is endowed with self-control and penances, who is
free from attachment, and to whom pleasure and pain are alike, is said
to represent pure consciousness. (For the definition of Sutra, see
He, who has manifested pure consciousness and is free from (knowledge
and connation-) obscuring, obstructive and deluding Karmic dust, has
become self sufficient; and fully comprehends the objects of
The omniscient, who has realised his nature and is worshipped by the
lords of all worlds, becomes self-sufficient; and he is called
Further, he represents a condition of the collocation of permanence,
origination and destruction; though therein the origination is without
destruction and the destruction devoid of origination.
In fact, every entity is characterised by existence; and it is with
regard to only one aspect that every object suffers origination and
He develops knowledge and happiness after having exhausted the
destructive Karmas, being endowed with excellent infinite strength and
excessive lustre and after becoming supersensuous.
The miseries of those beings, that have faith in him who is the best
among all things and who is respected by the foremost among gods of
demons, are exhausted.
In the case of the omniscient, the pleasure or pain is not physical,
because he is endowed with super sensuousness: so it should be known.
The omniscient who develops knowledge directly visualizes all objects
and their modifications; he does never comprehend them through the
sensational stages such as outliner grasp.
Nothing is indirect to him who is himself ever omniscient and who is
all-round rich in the qualities of all the organs of senses
though himself beyond the senses.
The soul is con-extensive with knowledge; knowledge is said to be
co-extensive with the object of knowledge; the object of knowledge
comprises the physical and non-physical universe; therefore knowledge
24-25. He, who does not admit the soul to be co-extensive with
knowledge, must indeed concede that the soul is either smaller or
larger than knowledge. If the soul is smaller, the knowledge, being
insentient, cannot know; if larger, how can it know in the absence of
The great Jina is everywhere and all the objects in the world are
within him, since the Jina is an embodiment of knowledge and
since they are the objects of knowledge.
The doctrine of Jina is that knowledge is the self and in the absence
of the self there cannot be (any) knowledge; therefore, knowledge is
the self, while the self is knowledge or anything else.
The knower has knowledge for this nature and all the objects are
within the range of the knowledge, just as the objects of sight are
within the ken of the eye, though there is no mutual inherence.
The knower, who is beyond sense-perception, necessarily knows and sees
the whole world neither entering into nor entered into by the objects
of knowledge, just as the eye sees the objects of sight.
The knowledge operates on the objects, just as a sapphire, thrown in
the milk, pervades the whole of it with its lustre.
If those are not within the knowledge, knowledge cannot be all
pervasive; the knowledge is all-pervasive, how then objects are not
existing in it?
The omniscient lord neither accepts nor abandons, nor transforms the
external objectivity; he sees all around, and knows everything
He, who clearly understands the self as of the nature of the knower on
the authority of the scriptural knowledge, is called a srutakevalin by
the sages that enlighten the world.
That which is preached by the Jina through words, which are
constituted of material substance, it called the sutra (or the sacred
text); knowledge consists in knowing it, and hence the sacred text
also is designated as knowledge.
He who knows is knowledge; the self does not become a knower with
knowledge (as an extraneous instrument). The very self develops
knowledge, and all the objects stand (reflected) in the knowledge.
Therefore the self is knowledge; the object of knowledge is the
substance, which is said to be threefold; he substance
comprises the soul and the (five) other (substances), which are prone
All modifications, present and absent, of all those types of
substances, stand essentially (reflected) in the knowledge, as if in
Those, which have never originated and those, in fact, that have been
and are already destroyed are the absent modifications; they are
directly visualised in omniscience.
If that omniscience would not directly visualise the future and past
modifications, who then would call that knowledge super-natural?
It is declared that it is impossible to know the past and future for
those who (are accustomed to) know the object by means of
discrimination and other stages (of perception), when it has fallen
within the range of the senses.
That is called supersensuous knowledge which knows any substance, with
or without space-points, with or without form, and those
modifications which have not come into existence and those which are
If the knower develops the influence of the object known, then he does
not possess the knowledge which is born after the destruction of
Karmas; the great Jinas say that he who so develops (merely) enjoys
the fruit of Karma.
The great Jinas say that portions of Karmas are necessarily operating
(and giving their fruit); he, who is infatuated with, or shows
attachment or aversion towards, them, necessarily incurs bondage (of
In the case of Arahantas, at the time of their Arhatship, (certain
activities like) standing, sitting, moving about and religious
discourse are natural (and necessary consequences of the Karmic
fruition with no effort on their part), just as acting deceitfully is
in the case of women.
Arahantas owe their status to the fruits of merits (or meritorious
Karmas); their activities are the consequences of the Karmic
operations; their activities are called ksayiki (i.e., due to the
destruction of Karmas), because they are free from infatuation etc.
The transmigratory existence would be an impossibility in the case of
all the embodied beings, if the soul itself is naturally
incapable of developing auspicious and inauspicious states.
That knowledge is called ksayika (i.e., produced after the destruction
of Karmas) which knows completely and simultaneously the whole range
of variegated and unequal objectivity of the present and otherwise.
He, who does not know simultaneously the objects of the three tenses
and in the three worlds, cannot know even a single substance with its
single substance has infinite modes and infinite are the classes of
substances; if he does not know (them) simultaneously, how will he be
able to know all of them?
if the knower, after coming into contact with the objectivity,
produces knowledge step by step; that knowledge cannot be eternal,
neither can it be ksayika nor all-pervasive.
The omniscience of the Jina knows simultaneously the (whole range of)
variegated and unequal objectivity possible in all places and present
in three tenses; indeed great is the glory of that knowledge !
The soul (of the omniscient), though knowing all the things, does not
transform itself (under their influence), does not receive (any-thing
external), nor does it become one among them; and hence it is said to
be without Karmic bondage.
Him ever adores the devoted world consisting of Devas, Asuras and
lords of men; so do I devotedly adore him.
Just as knowledge of various entities is super-sensitive with
reference to non-concrete and sensitive with regard to concrete
things, so too is happiness; that which is the best of those (two)
should be realized.
That is pratyaksa knowledge which perceives (all) the non-concrete
(things), among the concrete those (atoms etc.) that are beyond the
scope of senses, those that are hidden and all others that are related
to substances and also that are not.
The soul itself is non-concrete (i.e., devoid of the sense-qualities);
when it is embodied, it comes to be concrete; (thus, being coupled
with senses,) it perceives the perceptible through (the stages of)
outlinear grasp etc., or sometimes it does not.
The sense-qualities of touch, taste, smell, colour and sound have a
reference to material objects; the sense-organs can never grasp them
The sense-organs are the foreign stuff; they can never be said to form
the nature of the soul. How then what is perceived by them can be
direct (pratyaksa or immediate) for the soul?
58.Perception of things through a foreign agency is called paroksa,
indirect or mediate; whatever is perceived by the soul alone is
pratyaksa, direct or immediate?
That self-born, perfect, and pure knowledge which spreads over
infinite things and which is free from (the stages of perception such
as) outlinear grasp etc., is called the real happiness.
Whatever is known as omniscient knowledge, that alone is a condition
of happiness, no (trace of) miserly is said to be there, since the
destructive Karmas are exhausted.
(In the omniscient) the knowledge reaches the very verge of
objectivity, and the vision extends over the physical and
superphysical universe; in Him all that is undesirable is destroyed
and whatever is desirable is achieved.
The abhavya souls do not believe the statement that the happiness of
those who are free from destructive Karmas is the best of all, while
the bhavya souls accept it (and believe).
Lords of men, Asuras and Amaras, harassed by senses that are born with
them, being unable to bear with the pain, sport themselves with
attractive objects of senses.
Know that misery to be natural for those who are attached to the
objects of senses; if it is not natural, there would not be any
attempt for the objects of senses.
It is not the body, but the very soul itself, that develops happiness
having obtained desired objects that are naturally endowed with the
qualities of touch etc.
Really speaking, the body does not make any embodied being happy even
in heaven; but the soul itself develops happiness or misery
coming under the influence of the objects of enjoyment.
If the visual faculty of people could remove darkness, then the lamp
is of no avail; so when the soul itself is happiness, what then the
objects of enjoyment contribute?
Just as the sun, all by himself is lustrous and warm, and a deity of
the sky, so also the liberated soul is (endowed with) knowledge and
happiness, and is a divinity of the world.
He is Arhan (i.e., worshipful one) whose glory consists of lustre,
conation, knowledge, supernatural accomplishment, happiness, affluence
and the leading lordship of the three worlds.
repeatedly offer obeisance to the Siddha, who is superior and never
suffering in his merits, who holds lordship over men and Devas and who
is ever (hereafter) bound to take birth anymore.
The soul, that is devoted to the worship of God, ascetic and the
preceptor, to the offering of gifts, to virtuous conduct, and to
the observance of fasts, is of auspicious activities (or manifestation
The soul, endowed with auspicious manifestation of consciousness, is
born as a sub-human or human being or a god, and during that period,
obtains different kinds of sensual pleasures.
It is evident from the doctrine that the happiness even of the gods is
not self-established; oppressed by physical urge, they sport
themselves with attractive objects of senses.
If men, denizens of hell, sub-human beings and gods (indiscriminately)
suffer misery incidental of body, then of what avail is the
(distinction of) auspicious or inauspicious activity of the soul?
Indra and other sovereigns, quite engrossed as if they are happy,
nourish their bodies etc. by means of enjoyments that are the
consequences of auspicious activities.
If there are, in fact, different merits resulting from auspicious
activities (or mental condition), they (merely) occasion a sensual
thirsts to all the beings among whom the gods come last (in the order
Moreover those beings, with their thirst enhanced, pained with desires
and burning with misery, hanker after the pleasures of senses and
experience them till their death.
Happiness derived through sense-organs is dependent, amendable to
disturbances, terminable, a cause of bondage and dangerous; and hence
it is misery in disguise.
He, who does not admit that there is no difference between merit and
demerit, wanders in this horrible and boundless
transmigratory existence muffled in delusion.
Thus, knowing the nature of reality, he, who does not entertain
attachment or aversion for any object, destroys all physical pain,
being endowed with pure manifestation of consciousness.
Having abandoned sinful activities and proceeding on the path of
auspicious conduct, if one does not abandon delusion etc., he cannot
realize the pure self.
He is the God who is known for his austerities and self-control, who
is pure, who paves the path of heaven and liberation, who is
worshipped by the lords of Amaras and Ausras and who stands at the
summit of the physical world.
Those men attain eternal happiness who salute the God among the gods
of gods, who is foremost among the great saints, and who is the
preceptor of the three worlds.
He, who knows the Arahanta with respect to substantiality, quality and
modification, realizes himself; and his delusion, in fact, dwindles
The soul, being free from delusion and having grasped well the reality
of the self, realizes the pure self, if it abandons attachment and
It is in this way that even all the Arahantas have destroyed portions
of Karmas; preaching the same they attained Nirvana: my obeisance to
Bow unto those persons who are pure in faith, foremost in knowledge,
practising perfect conduct, and who deserve respect, honour and gifts.
The deluded notion of the soul about substances etc. is called
delusion, muffled therein and developing attachment or aversion the
soul is baffled.
Various kinds of bondage become possible, when the soul develops
delusion, attachment or aversion; therefore they are to be destroyed.
False perception of things, absence of kindness towards subhuman and
human beings and indulging with objects of pleasure-these are the
characteristics of delusion or infatuation.
He, who regularly understands the reality from the Jaina scriptures
with direct and other proofs, exhausts the heap of delusion;
therefore the scripture should be studied.
Substances, qualities and their modifications are (technically)
signified by the term artha; and among them, it is said, that the
substance is the substratum of qualities and modifications.
He, who destroys delusion, attachment and aversion, after having
grasped the discourse of the Jina, escapes from all miseries within a
He, who really knows his soul as constituted of knowledge and others
as only related with it as substances, effects the destruction of
Therefore, if the soul aspires after the delusionless state of the
self, it should understand from the Jaina creed the self and the
non-self among the (scheme of) substances with regard to their
He, who, in his state of Sramanya (i.e., asceticism), never believes
in these substances with their closely related generality of existence
and various special qualities, is not a Sramana; and religious purity
is not possible for him.
The great souled Sramana, who has put an end to his delusive vision,
who is expert in scriptures and who has established himself in conduct
free from attachment, is qualified as Dharma.
He acquires religious merit who, at his sight, is pleased, stands up
and respects him with salutation, obeisance etc.
Thereby, human and sub-human beings, obtaining the grades of gods and
men, have their desires ever fulfilled with wealth and
Having saluted and having constantly concentrated my mind on him, I
shall discourse in short upon the knowledge consisting in the
ascertainment of the highest objectivity.
The object of knowledge is made up of substances, which are said to be
characterised by qualities, and with which, moreover, are
(associated) the modifications; those, who are deluded by
modifications, are false believers.
Those beings, that are attached to modifications, are pointed out as
the followers of the foreign creed (para-samayika); and those
who establish themselves in the nature of the self, are to be known as
the followers of one's own creed.
That is called a substance which is endowed with qualities and
accompanied by modifications and which is coupled with
origination, destruction and permanence without leaving its nature (of existence).
The nature of the substance is existence accompanied by qualities by
its variegated modifications and by origination, destruction and
permanence for all the time.
Here, amongst various characteristics, existence in described as one
all-comprising characteristic by the great Jina, when (he was) clearly
propounding the (religious) creed.
The Jinas have truly declared that the substance is naturally (and
essentially) proved to be existential; and it is as well proved from
the scriptures; he, who does not accept it, is a false believer.
That existing entity established in its nature is the substance; the
development of the substance with reference to qualities and modes (artha)
is (also) its nature coupled with permanence, origination and
There can be no origination without destruction, nor there is
destruction without origination; origination and destruction are not
possible in the absence of the permanent substantiality.
Origination, permanence and destruction take place in modifications;
modifications are (possible) necessarily in a substance, therefore the
substance forms the base of all of them.
A substance, in fact, is intimately united with the (three) conditions
signified by the terms: origination, permanence and destruction at one
and the same moment; therefore, really speaking, the substance is (the
substratum of) all the three.
In a substance some modification originates and some other passes
away; but the substantiality neither originates nor is destroyed.
The substance, which is not different from its (initial) existence,
develops of its own accord some other quality leaving the one;
therefore, modifications in qualities are further called the
If the substance is not an existing entity, it must be either
non-existing or again something else than a substance; in either case
how can it be a substance? Therefore, the substance is self-existent.
It is the dictum of Mahavira and separateness (prathaktva) consists in
having separated space-points; non-identity (anyatva) is the absence
of identity; (between satta or existence and dravya or substance)
there is no identity (na tadbhavam perhaps the same as
aradbhavah, non-identity), then how can those two be one?
Substance is existing, quality is existing and modification is
existing: so is the detailed scope of existence; the negation of any
one of them, in fact, is that negation termed as non-identity.
Really speaking what is substance is not quality, nor what is quality
is substance; this is a case of non-identity and not of absolute
negation: so it is pointed out.
That condition, which in fact, forms the nature of the substance, is
quality which is not different from its initial existence; that
existing entity established in its nature is the substance: this is
the doctrine of the Jina.
There is nothing as quality nor as a modification in the absence of a
substance; that substantiality is (a condition) of positive existence;
therefore the substance is existence itself.
In this manner, the substance forever retains its position, in its own
nature, as endowed with positive and negative conditions
according as it is looked at from the substantial and the
When the soul (in its course) is or will be born as a man, god or any
one else, does it leave its substantiality? If it does not leave, how
is it different (in different births)?
A man (so long he has a human body) is not a god; nor is a god a man
or a liberated being; if it is not so possible, how can their mutual
non-difference be established?
All substances are non-different from the substantial viewpoint, but
again they are different from the modificational viewpoint, because of
the individual modification pervading it for the time being. 115.
According to some modification or the other it is stated that a
substance exists, does not exist, is indescribable, is both or
There is no modification (such as human or divine etc.) as such which
is permanent; nor there is any activity (of mundane beings) which is
not the outcome of their nature. Even if the highest Dharma is without
fruit, the activity (of mundane beings) is not without a fruit.
The Karma of the Nama type (i.e., the Nama-Karma which determines the
various physical characteristics of the embodied beings) overcomes the
nature of the soul with its nature, makes him a man, a sub-human
being, a denizen of hell or a god.
Men, denizens of hell, sub-human beings and gods who are, in fact,
shaped by (their own) Nama-karma, have not realized their nature (of
knowledge and bliss), developing as they are their Karmas.
In this world, in which modifications originate and pass away at every
moment, nothing is absolutely produced or destroyed; what is
production of one modification is the destruction of another; and thus
origination and destruction are different.
In this world, therefore, there is nothing as such absolutely
established in its nature; after all mundane existence is (only) an
activity of the soul-substance which is moving (in four grades of
The soul tainted with Karma attains a condition mixed with Karma;
thence Karma clings; therefore Karma is a condition (developed by
The development of the soul is soul itself, and this activity (of
development) pervades the soul; this activity is known as
Karma, and hence the soul is not the (direct) agent of (material)
The soul develops into (or with) sentiency which, in turn, is said to
be of three kinds, say with regard to knowledge, Karma and the fruit
Knowledge is the comprehension of the objectivity (exactly as it is);
whatever is done by the soul is Karma, which is of many kinds; the
fruit of Karma is either happiness or misery.
The nature of the soul is development: this development is with
reference to knowledge, Karma and the fruit; therefore, it
should be understood that knowledge, Karma and the fruit constitute
When the Sramana is convinced that the soul itself is the agent,
means, action, and the fruit, and if he does not develop anything
(else as passions etc.), he realizes the pure self.
Substance comprises Jiva, the sentient principle and Ajiva the
non-sentient principle; Jiva is constituted of sentiency and
manifestation of consciousness; Ajiva is insentient, and the foremost
of this class is matter.
That space which is accompanied by matter and soul, which is rich with
Kala (or time) and the two magnitudes (i.e., astikayas) of Dharma and
Adharma (i.e., the principles of motion and rest) and which is
eternal, is called Loka or the physical world.
Of this physical world constituted of matter and souls, there take
place a formation consisting of origination, permanence and
destruction collectively or visually.
The characteristics by which the sentient and non-sentient substances
recognised are known as the special qualities called murta and amurta,
The qualities which are perceived by senses, which characterise the
metal substances and which are manifold are murta or concrete
qualities; the qualities non-concrete substances are to be known as
amurta or non-concrete.
Colour, taste, smell and touch are found in matter from the finer
molecule the gross earth; and sound is material and of various kinds.
133-134. The peculiar property of Akasa is to give room; of the
Dharma-substance, to be a cause of movement; of Adharma, to be a cause
of stationariness; Kala, to mark the continuity; of soul, the
manifestation of consciousness; these to be known, in short, the
peculiar characteristics of non-concrete substances.
The souls, material bodies, principles of motion and rest and space:
all possess innumerable space-points; but time has no space-points.
These five substances, leaving aside the time, are called astikayas or
magnitudes; the word kaya signifies the collection of space-points.
The sky or space pervades Loka and Aloka; Loka is occupied by the
principles of motion and rest, by time which rests with the other two
(viz., soul and matter) and by soul and matter.
Just as there are points of space, so are there of the remaining
(substances); a primary atom is without space-points, because (being
an unit) it gives rise to the (measure of) space-point.
The moment of time is without space-points; it is equal to the time
required by that unit so substance measure by one Pradesa to traverse
one spacepoint of the sky-substance.
That much duration required for crossing from one to the other spatial
point is (known as) Samaya, instant or moment; the objective entity
before and after is time; samaya is lible to origination and
That much portion of the space occupied by one atom is called the
space-point and it is capable of giving room to the atoms of all
All substances (excepting time) have one, two, many, innumerable or
even infinite space-points, while time has only one space-point viz.,
samaya, instant or moment.
That samaya or instant, which has origination and destruction at one
and the same moment, is (still) a samaya established in its nature.
This is the essential nature of kalanu (the unit of time), all the
while, that it undergoes what are called origination, permanence and
destruction at one and the same moment.
That, which has not many space-points, nor even one space-point in
order that it might be known (?), should be known as void, which
is something other than existence.
The physical world is stable, eternal and (filled) complete with
entities endowed with space-points; he, who knows it, is the soul
endowed with four life essentials.
Life-essentials of Jivas or souls are senses, bala (i.e., the channels
of activities), duration of life and respiration.
Life-essentials (in details) are ten: five senses, three channels of
activity, viz., of mind, speech and body, respiration and the duration
That which formerly lived, lives now and will live in future with the
four life-essentials is the Jiva, the sentient principle; these
life-essentials, moreover, are fashioned by material substances.
The soul endowed with life-essentials, bound by infatuatory and other
Karmas, and enjoying the fruit of Karmas, is bound by other additional
If the Jiva, through delusion and hatred, causes harm to the
life-essentials again and again.
The soul tainted with Karma, so long as it does not give up attachment
towards external objects the foremost of which is the body, possesses
other life essentials again and again.
He, who has conquered his senses etc. and meditates the pure
manifestation of consciousness of his self, will not be tainted by
Karmas; how then can the life-essentials follow him?
The transformation of one condition into another, in the case of the
soul (when coming into contact with matter) whose existential
nature is (already) determined, is the modification with its varieties
of figuration etc.
Human, hellish, sub-human and divine modifications of the soul are
mutually different with regard to the figuration (of the body)
etc., because of the operation of Nama-karman.
The nature of the substance established in its existential condition
is said to be three-fold (viz., consisting of origination, permanence
and destruction); he, who knows it in detail, will not be infatuated
with foreign substances.
The soul is constituted of the manifestation of consciousness;
manifestation of consciousness is towards knowledge and cognition; the
manifestation of consciousness of the soul is either auspicious, or
If the manifestation of consciousness is auspicious, the soul
accumulates merit; in inauspicious, sin; in the absence of both there
is no accumulation (of Karmas).
He, who recognises the great Jinas, attends on Siddhas as well as
saints and is compassionate towards living beings, has an auspicious
resultant of consciousness.
He, who is steeped in sensual pleasures and passions, who is given to
false scriptures, evil intentions and wicked words, and who is cruel
and goes astray, has an inauspicious resultant of consciousness.
Being free from inauspicious manifestation of consciousness and
without the auspicious one towards foreign substances and being
indifferent, I meditate on my self that is essentially constituted of
I am neither the body, nor the mind, nor the speech, nor the cause
thereof, nor the agent, nor the commissioner, nor the consentor of the
It is pointed out that body, mind and speech are constituted of
material substances; and the material substance, in turn, is a lump of
I am neither made of matter, nor is the matter lumped by me;
therefore, I am neither the body nor the maker of that body.
The primary atom has no space-points; it is an unit of space-points
and itself having no quality of sound; being arid or cohesive it comes
to have two or more space-points.
It is said that the points of aridness or cohesiveness of an atom,
because of transformation, increasing by one form one onwards, attain
Atomic modifications, cohesive or arid, whether (having) even or odd
points, bind mutually, when ordinarily there is the difference of two
points, the minimum point being excepted.
An atom with two points of cohesiveness binds with an atom of four
points of cohesiveness or aridness; and that of three points with that
of five points.
The gross entities (or molecules) which have two or more space-points
and the subtle or gross earth-water-fire-air bodies come to have
different shapes according to their modifications (of the qualities of
cohesiveness or aridness).
The physical world is thickly packed everywhere with material bodies,
subtle and gross, capable of being received or not (by the soul).
The molecules capable of becoming Karmas, coming into contact with the
(passional) conditions or transformations of the soul, are developed
into Karmas; and not that they are so transformed by the soul.
Those material bodies, which are transformed into Karmas, go to form
the bodies, when the soul is passing into one more body again.
The physical body, the transformatory body, the electric body, the
translocational body and the Karmic body: all these are made of
Know that the (pure) soul is without (the qualities of) taste, colour,
smell, touch, and sound; it is all the quality of sentiency; it is
beyond inferential mark; and it has no definable shape.
Material objects possessing the qualities of colour etc., mutually
bind on account of their qualities of touch (viz., cohesiveness and
aridness); the (nature of the) soul is quite opposed to this; then how
is it that material Karmas bind it?
The soul, which is without colour etc., perceives and knows objects
endowed with colour etc. and the qualities; similarly the (case of)
bondage is to be understood.
The soul, which is constituted of the manifestation of consciousness,
conceives infatuation, attachment or aversion having obtained various
objects of pleasure; so again it is bounds up with them (i.e., the
It is by the attitude, with which the soul perceives and knows the
objects of senses, that it is tinged; and it is thereby, moreover, the
Karma binds: so goes the doctrine.
Bondage between material bodies is due to their qualities of touch
etc. (i.e, cohesiveness and aridness); and that of the soul is due to
attachment etc.; mutual interpenetration is said to be the bondage of
soul and matter.
The soul has space-points, and in those space-points material bodies
penetrate and remain as it may be possible; they pass away (according
to their duration) or remain bound.
When the soul develops attachment, Karma binds; when it is without
attachment, it becomes free from Karmas; know this to be in short the
real description of the bondage of the soul.
Bondage results from the modification which consists of attachment,
aversion and infatuation. Infatuation and aversion are inauspicious;
while attachment is either auspicious or inauspicious.
It is already remarked that auspicious and inauspicious attitudes
towards other (i.e., external) things lead to merit and sin
(respectively). According to the doctrine (of the Jina), the attitude,
which is (inclined) towards neither, is the cause of the destruction
(All) the living embodiments, immovable like the earth etc. and the
movable, are different from the (essential nature of) soul; and the
soul is essentially different from them.
He, who having realized (or accepted) his nature, does not understand
the self and the non-self (and the difference between them),
conceives, through infatuation, and attitude: I am this and this is
The soul, effecting the development of its consciousness, is the agent
of its own development; it is not the agent of all those conditions
constituted of material substances.
The soul, though standing in the midst of matter all the while,
neither accepts nor abandons, nor is the agent of material Karmas.
The soul, at present (i.e., in this transmigratory condition), being
the agent of its own modification constituted out of its own
substance, is sometimes bound up with or released from Karmic dust.
When the soul, under the influence of attachment or aversion develops
itself into auspicious or inauspicious resultant of consciousness, the
Karmic dust pours into it in the form of knowledge-obscuring etc.
The fruitition of suspicious or inauspicious types (of Karmas) is
intensified by pure and soiled attitudes (respectively); but in
reverse to that, all the types have minimum intensity.
The soul, which has space-points, when soiled by infatuation,
attachment and aversion, is clung by Karmic dust; and that is called
bondage in the scripture.
The Arahantas have preached to the ascetics or saints this discourse
in short on the bondage of the soul from the realistic standpoint of
view; the same from the ordinary standpoint of view is something
He, who does not abandon the notion of mineness over the body and
possessions that `I am this and this is mine', gives up the sramanya
(i.e., the status of a saint) and goes astray.
`I do not belong to others, nor do other belong to me; I am mere
knowledge'; he, who meditates thus in concentration, comes to meditate
on his (pure) self.
Thus I consider myself to be constituted of knowledge and faith,
supersensuous, a great objectivity, eternal, stable, independent and
Bodies, possessions, happiness, misery, friends or enemies are not the
eternal associates of the soul; the soul is eternally constituted of
the manifestation of consciousness.
He, who, knowing this and being pure in self, meditates on that
highest Self, whether he is a layman or an ascetic, destroys the
dangerous knot of delusion.
He, who has destroyed the knot of delusion, who has overthrown
attachment and aversion and is indifferent to pleasure and pain in his
condition of a Sramana, attains eternal happiness.
He, who has destroyed the dirt of delusion, has abstained from objects
of pleasure, has restrained his mind and is established in his own
nature, becomes a meditator of the self.
What does that great sage, who has destroyed the thick destructive
Karmas, who directly comprehends all entities and realities, who has
reached the end of the objects of knowledge and who is free from
doubts, meditate upon?
Being free from all hindrances, being all round rich in knowledge and
happiness of all the senses (together), being beyond the reach of
senses and having no senses, he meditates on the highest happiness.
My salutation to that path leading to Nirvana and to those who,
following it, attained the states of Sramanas, of Jinas, of Jinendras
and of Siddhas.
Therefore, thus realizing the soul as the knower by nature, I give up
the notion of mineness and have come to adopt the (notion of)
My repeated salutations to those liberated saints whose faith (darsana)
in pure, who are endowed with the manifestation of consciousness with
respect to right knowledge and who are happy without hindrances.
201-202. Having repeatedly saluted the Siddhas, the foremost great
Jinas and the saints, may he adopt asceticism, if the desires for
escape from misery, after taking leave of the family of relations,
being let off by elders, wife and children, and being intent on the
cultivation of knowledge, faith, conduct, austerities and strength.
He prostrates himself before a (great) saint, the head of an ascetic
band, rich in virtues, endowed with distinctive family, form the age,
and honoured by ascetics, saying `Admit me'; and he is favoured (with
admission to the ascetic community).
I do not belong to others, nor do others belong to me; there is
nothing that is mine here; thus determined and conquering his senses,
he adopts a form similar to that in which he is born (yatha-jata-rupadharah).
205-206. The (external) emblem (of a Jaina saint) consists in
possessing a form in which one is born, in pulling out hair and
moustache, in being pure, in being free from harm unto beings etc.,
and in not attending to the body (apratikarma); the (internal) Jaina
(ascetic) emblem, which is the cause of negation of births, consists
in being free from infatuation and preliminary sins, in being endowed
with purity of manifestation of consciousness and activities, and in
having no desire for anything else.
Adopting this (ascetic) emblem (both external and internal), at the
hands of an excellent preceptor, bowing to him and (then)
hearing the course of duties consisting of vows, when one begins to
practise it, he becomes a Sramana (i.e., an ascetic).
208-209. (Five) vows, (fivefold) carefulness, control of (five)
senses, pulling out the hair, (sixfold) avasyakas (or essentials),
nakedness, not taking bath, sleeping on ground, not cleaning the
teeth, taking meals in a standing posture and taking only one meal a
day-these, in fact, have been prescribed, as the primary virtues of
the ascetic, by the great Jinas; he, who is negligent about them, is a
defaulter (who needs to be reestablished on the correct path).
That preceptor, at whose hands they accept the (ascetic) emblem, is
known as pravrajya-dayaka (i.e., the teacher who initiates them into
the ascetic fold); the remaining ascetics, who help to re-establish
them in the right course, when they have committed certain defaults,
are called niryapaka.
211-212. When the monk is carefully conducting (his) physical
activities, if there is a default, to him is then prescribed a (lustral)
course of conduct preceded with alocana (i.e., the report of sins
committed); the defaulter monk should approach a monk (practically)
expert in the Jaina doctrine, should confess before him and practise
what is prescribed by him.
Whether in the company of his preceptor or alone, without (any) breach
with regard to his ascetic course, an ascetic should remain ever
avoiding the attachments.
That is perfect asceticism, when one practises his course ever intent
on knowledge preceded by faith and exerting in the (practice of)
A Sramana does not entertain attachment either for food or for fast,
either for residence or for touring, or for paraphernalia, or for
co-monks, or for unhealthy gossip.
Careless activities of a monk when sleeping, sitting, standing and
walking, are always known as continuous harm unto living beings.
Let the being die or not, harm unto living beings is certain (to
occur) in the case of him who is careless in conduct; there is no
bondage for him, who is mindful of the items of carefulness, by mere
*1-2. If a subtle living organism is crushed or killed with the
contact of the feet in movement of an ascetic who is careful in his
walking towards his destiny, the scripture does not hold him liable
even for a slight bondage as a consequence of that; (the case is
similar to the statement:) it is infatuation alone that is called
paraphernalia on the authority of the spiritual lore.
A Sramana of careless conduct is called murderer of the six (classes
of) embodied beings; if he carefully practises (his course of
conduct), he is forever uncontaminated like the lotus on water.
There is or there is no bondage, when a being dies in the course of
physical activities; bondage is certain from attachment to
paraphernalia, therefore ascetics give up everything.
If there is no renunciation (absolutely) free from (any) expectation,
the monk cannot have the purification of mind; how can he effect the
destruction of Karmas, when he is impure in mind?
*3-5. (If you were to say that) it is (found) stated in certain texts
that a monk accepts a piece of clothing and possesses a pot; (we have
to ask) how can he (with these) be independent and without activities
involving preliminary sin? If he accepts a piece of clothing,
gourdbowl and anything else, necessarily there is involved harm unto
living beings, and there is disturbance in his mind: he accepts the
pot and the piece of cloth, cleanses them, washes them, carefully
dries them in the sun, protects them and is afraid of other (that they
might take them away.)
(If he accepts these things) how then is he not liable to infatuation,
preliminary sin and lack of control?; similarly when a monk is
attached to external things how will he realize his self?
A monk would so conduct (his course of duties), understanding the
(necessities of) time and place, that, when using the paraphernalia,
there should not be any default (with respect to primary virtues) in
accepting and abandoning it.
Let the monk accept that little (quantity of) paraphernalia, which
does not involve bondage (i.e., which is sanctioned by the scripture,)
which si not desired for by men who are self-controlled (i.e., which
is essential for maintaining self-control) and which does not give
rise to (any) infatuation etc.
Even the slightest thought about the body, on the part of him who aims
at the negation of births, is considered as attachment; therefore the
great Jinas have preached non-attention (towards the body).
The religion preached by great saints (i.e., the Tirthankaras) does
not aim at (happiness etc. in) this or the next world (but only at
liberation); then how is it that, in this religion, women are
prescribed an alternative ascetic emblem consisting of clothing etc.)?
In fact, liberation is not said to be possible for women in that very
birth; therefore an alternative (ascetic) emblem is prescribed for
women befitting them.
The nature of these (viz., women) is naturally full of negligence (Pramada),
and hence they are designated as pramada; therefore these women (pramada)
are said to be plentifully negligent.
As a matter of fact, women are liable to infatuation, aversion, fear
and disgust; in their mind (there is) crookedness of a varied type;
therefore they cannot attain liberation (in that very birth).
There is not a single woman, in the whole world who is without even
one of these above faults; their limbs are not closed (?) (samudam),
and hence they need clothing.
In their case there is always the mental mobility and fickleness and
the periodical oozing of blood (at the time of monthly course) wherein
grow subtle human organisms. *12 There is said to be the growth of
subtle organisms in the female organ of generation, in between their
breasts and in the parts of their naval and armpit; then how can
self-control be possible for them?
Women cannot effect (complete) exhaustion of Karmas, even though they
are pure in faith, are endowed with scriptural study and practise a
severe course of conduct.
Therefore the Jinas have prescribed for them an emblem befitting their
nature (i.e., consisting of clothing etc.); those, that are endowed
with family, form and age and practise that course, are called nuns (sramani).
He is a fit one for accepting the ascetic emblem who hails from the
three castes (varnas), whose limbs are healthy, whose age can stand
the austerities, who is of winning appearance and whose character is
free from any scandal.
The loss of three jewels is said to be the (greatest) loss by the
Jinas, even by any other loss one does not remain fit for observing
sallekhana, i.e., the voluntary submission of death.
According to Jainism the (acceptable) ascetic paraphernalia is said to
consist of the bodily form in which one is born, the words of the
teacher, (disciplinary) modesty and the study of the sacred texts.
He is Sramana who has no desires in this world and no attachment for
the next, whose diet and touring are proper, and who is free from
The ascetic becomes negligent or careless, when he is affected by the
four (passions), anger etc. and unhealthy gossip, by the objects of
senses, and by affection and drowsiness.
(Really speaking) the soul of the monk does not eat (any) food; that
is the (internal) penance; and the ascetics are after that. The
ascetics are (as good as) without food, even if they accept faultless
The Sramana possesses the body alone, and even towards the body he
pays no attention of mineness; he yokes the same to austerities
without concealing his ability.
(The proper food consists of) one meal which is not stomachful, in the
form in which it is obtained, which is obtained by begging and by day,
wherein there is no consideration of juices and which does not contain
honey and flesh.
*18-19. There is an incessant growth of subtle organisms of the
nigoda class (similar to the colour of the flesh etc.) in the pieces
of flesh cooked or raw and in the course of being cooked; he, who eats
or touches the pieces or raw or baked flesh, kills, in fact, a host of
many crores of beings.
The unauthorised food (i.e., not sanctioned by the scriptures), which
has fallen in the (cavity of) palms, should not be given to others; he
is unfit to eat (again) after giving it (to others); if he eats, he
must repent for that.
A monk, young or old, exhausted or diseased, should practise a course
of conduct fit for him in a manner that there is no violation of
If a Sramana observes his course of conduct understanding the (nature
of) food, touring, place, time, physical labour, his forbearance and
his bodily condition, he incurs the least bondage.
He, who is concentrated on one thing alone, is a Sramana; such a
concentration is possible for him whose comprehension of the
objectivity is certain; this certainty (of knowledge) is possible from
the study of scriptures; therefore application to the (study of)
scriptures is of the highest importance.
The Sramana, who is lacking in the study of scriptures, does not know
his self and the things other than his self; without knowing the
objectivity how can the monk destroy the Karmas?
The saints have scriptures as their eyes; all the living beings have
sense-organs as their eyes; the gods have clairvoyance as their eyes;
and the Siddhas have eyes in every way.
All the objects, with their various qualities and modifications, are
known from the scriptures: those, who know them learning from the
scriptures, are the Sramanas.
He, whose right faith is not preceded by the (study of) scripture,
cannot possess self-control: so says the sacred text; and if he has no
moral discipline, how can he be a Sramana?
One does not attain liberation (merely) by the (study of) scripture,
if he has no faith with regard to the nature of reality; or one who
has faith cannot attain Nirvana if he is devoid of moral discipline.
The man of knowledge, who is controlled in three ways, destroys within
a breath the Karma which a man devoid of knowledge could destroy in
hundred thousand crores of lives.
Further, he, who has an atom of attachment towards body etc., cannot
attain liberation, even if he knows all the scriptures.
Especially in ascetic life, moral discipline is said to consist in
renunciation, in abstaining from activities (leading to sin), in
refraining from sensual pleasures and in destroying the passions.
That Sramana, who has five-fold carefulness, who is controlled in
three ways, who has curbed his five senses, who has subdued his
passions and who is completely endowed with faith and knowledge, is
Enemies and the members of the family, happiness and misery, praise
and censure, a clod of earth and (a lump of) gold, and even life and
death are alike to the Sramana.
He, who is simultaneously applied to (the cultivation of) the trio of
right faith, knowledge and conduct, is said to have attained
concentration; and he has perfect asceticism.
If an ignorant ascetic, accepting an external object, falls a prey to
delusion, attachment or aversion, he is bound by various Karmas.
In an ascetic, develops neither infatuation nor attachment nor
aversion, he necessarily destroys various Karmas.
According to the (authority of the) scripture the ascetics are endowed
with either pure or auspicious manifestation of consciousness:
amongst them, those endowed with the pure one have no Karmic influx
and the rest have.
The ascetic course of conduct, resulting from auspicious manifestation
of consciousness, consists in devotion to Arahantas etc. and in
showing affection towards those who are applied to the doctrine.
Standing up (when the elderly monks arrive), following them (when they
are going), showing respect (to them) and removal of fatigue: these,
accompanied by salutation and adoration, are not forbidden for monks
having auspicious resultant of consciousness.
Preaching about right faith and knowledge, receiving and feeding the
pupils, and giving instruction in the worship of great Jinas
constitute the course of conduct of monks with auspicious resultant of
He, who renders assistance to the ascetic community consisting of four
classes without causing harm to any living being, is the foremost monk
If an ascetic, in course of rendering assistance to his co-monks,
causes pain to living beings, he is no more an ascetic but becomes a
house-holder, because that forms the duty of a layman.
One should confer benefits on all the Jainas whether practising the
course of duty of a house-holder or of an ascetic through compassion
and without expecting anything in return, even though this involves
A monk (of subhopayoga) should, to the best of his ability, help a
co-ascetic seeing him suffering from disease, hunger, thirst or
Talk with common people, if it results into auspicious consciousness,
for rendering assistance to diseased, revered, young or old ascetics,
is not forbidden.
This course of conduct is good for monks; but it is the best for
householders, whereby alone they (gradually) attain the highest bliss.
The auspicious attachment fruits otherwise according to the object
with which it is associated, like the seeds, at the sowing time, sown
in different kinds of fields.
One, who is devoted to vows, rules, study, meditation and charity and
who is keeping in mind the aims prescribed by a teacher who has
not attained omniscience, will not attain liberation, but attains a
pleasurable condition of existence (to be followed by births again).
Reverence, service and gifts offered to persons, who do not know the
nature of reality and in whom pleasures and passions predominate,
result into wretched births among men and gods.
Since objects of pleasures and passions are described as sin in the
sacred texts, how can those, who are given to them, be able (to cross
and) to help others to cross (the mundane existence)?
That man, who has refrained from sin, who entertains an attitude of
equality towards all religious people and who maintains a band of
virtues, joins the excellent, path of liberation.
Those, that are free from inauspicious manifestation of consciousness
and are endowed with pure or auspicious one, can (cross and) help
other to cross (the mundane existence); one who is devoted to them
Seeing a natural object (in the form of a great saint), one should
perform such duties, the foremost of which is standing up, one is to
be honoured according to his merits: that is the advice (of Jinas).
Meritorious ascetics in this worlds, it is said, should be welcomed
with a stand-up, should be greeted with words, should be served fed
and revered, should be saluted with folded hands and be bowed down to.
Sramanas, skilled in the interpretation of sacred texts and rich in
moral discipline, austerities and right knowledge, should be welcomed
with a stand-up, should be served and be bowed down to by other
It is opined that one does not become a Sramana, though endowed with
moral discipline, austerities and scriptural study, if he has no faith
in the realities, the foremost of which is the soul, as preached by
Seeing an ascetic abiding by the injunctions of the scripture, he, who
ridicules him through malice and is unwilling to do these reverential
duties (unto him), ruins his conduct.
If a monk of inferior merits, thinking (proudly) that he is a Sramana,
expects reverence from one who is more merited, he wanders in worldly
existence till infinity.
If monks possessing more merits with regard to their asceticism,
remain practising (their duties) with (or in the company of) those of
inferior merits, they are victims of false faith and lose their
He, who has properly grasped the interpretation of the sacred text,
who has pacified the passions and who excels in austerities, cannot be
self-controlled, if he does not abandon company with common people.
He, who is pained in mind at the sight of and receives kindly the
thirsty, hungry and miserable, is a man of compassion.
If a monk after becoming a Nirgrantha ascetic, still dabbles in
worldly professions (like palmistry etc.) , he is called a worldly man
(or a commoner), even though he is endowed (externally) with
self-control and austerities.
Therefore, a Sramana, if he desires for release from misery, should
always live with an ascetic of equal merits or possessing more merits.
Those, who have wrongly grasped the nature of realities and are sure
(in their mistaken way) that the reality, according to the creed, is
such, wander long (till infinity) in mundane existence which is full
with the fruits of misery.
He, who has abstained from improper conduct, who is certain about the
nature of reality exactly as it is, whose soul is peaceful and who
maintains perfect asceticism here, will not live long without
attaining the fruit (of liberation).
Those, that have grasped all things properly, have renounced
(attachment for) external and internal paraphernalia and are not
steeped in pleasures of senses, are called the pure or suddha.
He, who is pure, is said to be Sramana; to the pure one belong faith
and knowledge; the pure one attains liberation; healone is a Siddha:
my salutation to him.
He, who practising the course of duties of a house-holder and of a
monk, comprehends this doctrine, realizes, within ashort time, the
essence of the doctrine (namely, the Self).