II.The Ten Prayascittas.
III. Some details about these.
IV. Implementation of the Punishment.
V. Laws of Jurisprudence for Nuns.
VI. Salient Features.
VII. Comparison with Buddhist
Having seen the qualifications that led
to the formation of the hierarchy, let us now go into the core of the
subject and see the details regarding the main prayascittas and the
method or procedure of dealing with a transgressor (vavahara).
II. The Ten Prayascittas
The texts of the Svetambaras
canon give the following ten prayascittas. (Than.,p. 355b; Bhag.,
pp. 920bff; Ova. p. 78; etc. etc.).
1. Aloynra (alochana)- nivedana
tllakshanran shudhim yadrhtyaticharjatam tada lochanaaee' The
reporting of the transgression to the guru. Such a confession led to the
mental purity of the transgressor as also gave him mental courage of
2. Padikkamanr (pratikarmanr)-
mithyadushkritam- Condemnation of a transgression committed. (aiyara)
3. Tadubhya - alochanamithyadushkrite
- Confession and condemnation.
4. Viveg (vivek)--
ashudhbhktadityag - giving up of transgressions like impure food etc.
5. Viyusag (viyutsarg) - kayotsarga:�
6. Tao (tapas) - nirvikritikadi -
penance in the form of fasting or taking a particular kind of food.
7. Chhey ( chhed) - prvrjyapyary
hasveekaranram � the shortening of seniority or insubordination.
8. Mool - mhavrtaropanram -
9. Anrvatthappa (anvsthapya)
krittapaso vrtaropanram � temporary expulsion.
10. Parinchya (paranchik) -
lingadibhedam - expulsion.
The last one has been explained by the Ovavaiya commentary as
tapovisheshenraivati charpargamanam (p. 79), i.e., the overcoming
of transgression by means of the practicing of a peculiar kind of penance.
This list of the ten
prayascittas is the same in practically all the Svetambaras
The list as given in the
Digambaras text Mulacara differs a bit from that cited above.
For instance, the first eight prayascittas are the same, but the
ninth is substituted by 'parihara' and the tenth by 'saddhana'.
(Mul. 5, 165).
The former has been divided by the
commentator as 'Ganapratibaddha' and 'apratibaddha', and
explained as -being the transgressions committed by a monk while leading
the corporate life in a Gana, or the transgressions Committed by
him when he was alone in a region foreign to him, respectively. The tenth
prayascittas 'saddhana' has been explained to mean the
determination on the part of the transgressor to give up transgressions
and his reaffirmation of faith in the true religion.