Basically, you have described Jiva and Ajiva the two substances,
in which rest all substances are covered; besides them, what other substances
are left out which are described as purposeless?
substances are, of course, covered in Jiva-Ajiva but there are
many specialties of those Jiva-Ajiva substances. Out of those
specialities of Jiva-Ajiva, the right belief of such
specialities which leads to the right belief of self and non-self, gives rise
to the belief of forsaking Raag (attachment) etc. and will produce
happiness; and by having wrong belief, of which the right belief of self and
non-self is not evolved, the belief of forsaking attachment, etc. is not
generated and will result in misery. Knowledge of Jiva & Ajiva
substances with such specialties is to be known as purposeful. Moreover, the
Jiva-Ajiva substances with their those specialties are to be
known purposeless by having or not having the right belief of which the belief
of self and non-self may or may not get generated and the belief of uprooting
attachment, etc. may or may not get evolved; there is no surety.
For instance, having
belief of Jiva and body (person) with Caitanya (consciousness)
and Murtatva (corporeality) etc. respectively is purposeful and having
belief of human, etc. embodied and jar, cloth, etc. forms of matter (specific
forms of Jiva & matter) is purposeless. Similarly, other examples are
to be known.
Thus, wrong belief of
the aforesaid purposeful Jiva etc. Tattvas should be known as
Mithya Darshan (perverse faith).
The Tendency of
Now the tendency of
wrong belief found in mundane beings is described here. Though belief
is to be described, yet the description is being given with emphasis on
cognizance, because belief follows knowledge.
Wrong Belief about
the Self (Jiva) and Non-self (Ajiva)
The self Jiva
is from the beginningless time; he assumes different modifications owing to
the instrumentality of karmic matter. There, he relinquishes the
former modification and assumes new modification. And that modification is a
conglomerated form of bondage of the one- self (soul) and corporal body of
infinite matter-particles (atoms). And "I am this" such sort of I-ness feeling
in that modification is found to this Jiva. And he himself is Jiva
(soul), his intrinsic nature is knowledge, perception, etc. and the alien
dispositions are anger, etc. and the color, smell, taste, touch, etc. are the
nature of matter-particles (atoms) - all these characteristics, he believe to
be as his own nature.
`These are mine' -
this type of mineness feeling is found in them (non-self things). And he
himself is a Jiva, the increasing-decreasing states of knowledge, etc.
and anger- passion, etc. are his modifications and the changing of color, etc.
is the modification of matter-particles (atoms) - all these forms he believes
to be as his own modifications. `This is my state' such sort of mineness
feeling is held by him.
Further, there exists
cause and effect relationship between the Jiva (soul) and body, hence,
whatever movement or action takes place, he believes it to be as his own.
Perception, knowledge (sentience) is one's nature and the touch, etc. material
senses which are parts (limbs) of the body are merely instrumental to his
activity. This (misbeliever) treating these as one with himself, believes
that "I touched by hand, etc., tasted by tongue, smelled by nose, saw by eyes,
heard by ears". Further, situated in the heart is the material-mind made up of
(specific material-particles called) Manovargana in the form of
eight-petal lotus. It is not visible to eyes, and is a part of body; thus on
its being instrumental, the knowledge functions in the form of remembrance,
etc. Treating the material mind and the knowledge as one, he believes that "I
knew by material mind".
Further, when the desire of speaking arises then he vibrates his Pradeshas
(spatial units) in- a way that speaking materializes. Thereby, owing to (the
instrumentality of) common-space occupancy-relationship, the organs of the
body also vibrate. Owing to their instrumentality, the Bhasha-
Varganakind of Pudgala (matter-particles) turn into the
vocal-words-form. Treating all these as one, he believes "I speak".
Further, the desire of
making movement, etc. action or acquiring (enjoying) a thing, etc., arises in
the self, then he vibrates his Pradeshas in a way that the desired
action takes place. There, owing to the common-space-occupancy- relationship;
the organs of the body vibrate then that action takes place; or without one's
desire the body vibrates; then one's (soul's) Pradeshas also vibrate.
Treating all these as one, he believes "I make movement, etc. I acquire
(enjoy) the objects or I have acquired (enjoyed) it, etc." Thus he believes in
Further, when the
passion dispositions arise in this Jiva then the bodily movements also
become according to those passions; for example, eyes become red on the rise
of anger- passion, etc., the face becomes cheerful on the rise of
laughter-passion, the penis becomes stiff (erect) on the rise of male
sex-passion; this (misbeliever) treating all these as one, believes, "I do all
these acts". And the states of cold, warm, hunger, thirst, disease, etc. are
generated in the body; through their instrumentality, being overpowered by
delusion, he himself believes happiness and sorrow; knowing all these as one,
he believes the cold, etc. (states of body) and happiness-sorrow as if all
this has happened in him.
Further, because of
union and disunion of the atoms of the body or because of changes in their
states or because of cuts in the bodily parts, etc., one (embodied self)
becomes (physically) obese-gaunt (lean and thin) etc., young-old, etc. or
crippled, and accordingly, one's soul's Pradeshas get contracted or expanded;
this (misbeliever) treating all these as one, believes: I am obese, I am lean
and thin (gaunt), I am child, I am old (aged), my these limbs have been cut"
believes in such many ways.
Further, the Gati
(state of existence), Kul (race) etc. are found from the viewpoints of
the body. Treating them as one's own, he believes, "I am human, I am animal or
plant (Tiryanch), I am Kshatriya (warrior), I am Vaishya
(trader) etc." And from the union and disunion of the body point of view,
birth and death take place; treating it as his own birth-death, he believes:
"I took birth, I will die".
Due to the
relationship with the body only, he believes having kinship with other things.
He treats them to be his parents who have been instrumental in giving birth to
his body, to her who dallys his body amorously accepts as his wife, to him who
got birth by his body accepts as his son, to him who is beneficent (helpful)
to his body accepts as his friend, to him who harms his body accepts as his
foe; such sorts of belief are found in him.
What more to say? He
believes himself and the body as one in all respects. Here the names of the
senses, etc. have been described but he is totally unaware of all this.
Senselessly, he holds I-ness feeling in the embodied form (Paryaya);
What is its reason? The same is being explained now:
This Jiva is
having sensory knowledge from the beginningless time, due to that reason, "the
self who is of non-corporeal (immaterial) form" this is not cognized by him,
but 'the body which is of material form' - that only is cognized by him. And
it is the nature of the self to definitely possess I-ness feeling by knowing
something as to be the self. Hence, so long as the self (soul) is not cognized
as to be a separate entity till then he possesses I-ness feeling in their
combined form of modification (embodied form) only.
There exists an
uttermost cause and effect relationship between the self (soul) and the body,
that is why the separateness (discrimination) is not cognized and the thought
by which the separateness is cognized cannot evolve owing to intense influence
of wrong belief. Therefore, I-ness feeling is found in the embodied form (Paryaya)
Further, sometimes on
association of external things (wealth, etc.), this Jiva treats all
these things as his own due to wrong belief. Although son, wife, wealth,
grain, elephant, horse, house (palace), servant, etc. appear to the self as
distinctly different from the self and always not dependent on the self, even
then he (this misbeliever) feels mineness in them.
Sometimes such sort of
hallucination about the son, etc. arises that "their existence is my
existence". And due to wrong belief, the characteristics of the body, etc. are
perceived only contrary to their nature. He believes transitory as permanent,
separate as not separate, cause of sorrow as cause of happiness, sorrow as
happiness; such contrary feeling generates.
Thus, owing to wrong
knowledge of Jiva-Ajiva Tattvas wrong belief persists.
Wrong Belief about
Further, owing to the
rise of Mohaniya karma (deluding karma) mithyatv
(wrong belief) and kasayas (attachment & aversion passions) etc.
dispositions are caused in this Jiva; he (the misbeliever) believes
them to be as his nature, does not know them as caused by the rise of karmas.
He believes perception and knowledge (Upayoga) and these influx
dispositions (Asrava Bhavas) to be as one thing, because their
substratum is the same one soul and the change of their modification happens
on the same moment of time, therefore, the distinct nature of these is not
comprehended by him and the thought (knowledge) which is the cause of
realizing distinct nature cannot evolve owing to the force (severity) of wrong
"These wrong belief
and passions are found with restlessness, hence are distressing in the present
and are the cause of karmic bondage; therefore, will produce misery in
future" -he (the misbeliever) does not believe them so and knowing
advantageous, indulges himself by engrossing in these dispositions. Further,
he becomes miserable because of his own wrong belief and passions and in vain
considers others to be the cause of misery. For example, (the Jiva)
becomes miserable due to wrong belief but considers that substance irksome
which does not modify according to his belief. And one becomes sorrowful due
to anger-passion but he considers that thing distressing with which he got
angry. One becomes miserable due to greed-passion but he considers misery
being caused by not getting the desired thing. Similarly, one should
understand in other respects also.
fruition of these influx dispositions takes place, same is not cognized by
him. Due to severity of these (passions) one gets birth in the hell, etc. and
due to mildness of these, one gets birth in the heaven, etc.; there he
experiences more-less restlessness misery but one does not cognizes it to be
so and as such those dispositions (influx) do not appear to be bad. The reason
is this that those dispositions appear to be produced by him, therefore, how
to believe them to be bad?
Thus, owing to wrong
knowledge of Asrava-Tattva wrong belief is caused.