bhav kai sab dukhnikai, karanr Mithyabhav
Tin kee sata nash kari, pragtai moksh upaav
The main causes of all
miseries of this mundane existence are fallacious (alien) dispositions of
belief-knowledge and conduct. By uprooting their existence, the right means of
attaining liberation gets manifested.
The fundamental causes
of all worldly miseries are perverse belief, perverse knowledge and perverse
conduct. Their characteristics are being elaborately described here. As a
physician tells in detail the causes of the disease and the patient does not
take unsuitable diet then he gets free from the disease. Similarly, a detailed
exposition of the cause of transmigration (mundane existence) is given here;
by knowing which if the mundane beings do not indulge in perverse belief,
etc., then they would get free from mundane existence. Hence, a detailed
exposition of the perverse belief, etc. is being given here:
of Perverse Belief
This Jiva is
having bondage of karmic matter from times immemorial. The misbelief in
Tattvas (reality) caused in him owing to the rise of Darshan
Moha (faith-deluding) karma is termed as MithyaDarshan
(wrong belief). For, the Quality of thatness is the reality (Tattva)
i.e. the intrinsic characteristics of the substance which is worth
ascertaining is termed as Tattva (the reality). That which is not a
Tattva is Atattva (non-reality). Therefore, that which is
Atattva (non-reality) is false, so the name of this (falsity) is
perversity (Mithya). And "this is thus only"- having such
ascertainment, is called Shraddha (belief).
(belief) is to be taken as Darshan (Faith). Al- though the literal
meaning of the word Darshan is general (undifferentiated) perception,
yet with reference to the context here the meaning of this verb should be
known as "to believe." Similar interpretation is given in Tattvarthsutra's
commentary Sarvartha Siddhi. Because general perception is neither the
cause of transmigratory existence nor of liberation; rather the belief alone
is the cause of transmigration or liberation; hence, in the context of the
cause of transmigration-liberation, the meaning of Darshan should be
known as belief only.
Thus, the wrong form
of perception, i.e., belief is to be understood as Mithya Darshan
(wrong belief). Believing contrary to the nature of the substance and not
believing as it really is such fallacious determination, i.e. misconception is
Mithya Darshan (perverse belief).
Without omniscience (perfect knowledge) all the substances are not
comprehended rightly and without having right comprehension the right belief
does not evolve; how could then the wrong belief be abandoned?
Knowing, not knowing or wrong knowing of the substances depends on the
Kshayopashama or Udaya of Jnana Varana karma and the
ascertainment (belief) evolves only on knowing; how could ascertainment take
place without knowing - this is true. But as some person know incorrectly or
correctly those objects with which he has got nothing to do and believes them
exactly as he knows them, even due to that there is no harm or benefit to him;
because of this he does not get the name of an insane or an ingenious person.
And if he knows incorrectly the objects with which he is concerned and
believes them accordingly then he gets harmed; so, he is called an insane
person and if he knows those objects correctly and believes accordingly then
he is benefited; so, he is called a wise person. Similarly, if the Jiva
knows incorrectly or correctly those things with which he is not concemed and
believes them accordingly then there is no harm or gain to him; because of
this he does not get the title of misbeliever or true believer, but if he
knows incorrectly the substances or elements with which he is concerned and
believes them accordingly then he is harmed; therefore, he is called
misbeliever and if he knows them correctly and believes them accordingly then
he is benefitted: therefore, he is called true believer.
Here it should be
known that in not knowing or knowing correctly-incorrectly the non-concerned
or concerned substances, there happens the decrease or increase of one's
knowledge; so, this much is the loss or gain of the Jiva and its
instrumental cause is the Jnanavarana karma. But due to holding
false or right belief about the concerned
substances, there happens some more harm or benefit to this Jiva; so,
its instrumental cause is Darshan Moha karma.
belief is according to the knowledge, hence, belief appears to be related with
Jnana Varana karma; how could the specific instrumentality of
Darshan Moha karma be established here?
five-sensed rational beings possess the Kshayopashama
(destruction cum subsidence) of Jnanavarana karma (i.e.,
manifestation of knowledge) necessary for effectuating belief of the Jiva
etc., essential principles (Purposeful Tattvas). But the
Dravyalingi Muni (a possessionless ascetic following complete
conduct without right belief) studies even up to eleven Angas (out of
the total 12 Angas of the whole scripture) and the Devas (Gods)
of Graiveyaka heavens possess clairvoyance knowledge (Avadhijnan)
etc.; in spite of possessing such a high degree of Kshayopashama of
Jnana varana karma they do not possess the right belief of Jiva
etc., essential principles whereas the Tiryanchas (rational five-sensed
animals) in spite of their having lesser degree of Kshayopashama of
Jnanavarana karma may be found possessed with right belief of
Jiva etc., essential principles. It is, therefore, understood that the
belief does not evolve according to. (the Kshayopashama of)
Jnanavarana only; some other (instrumental) karma is there and that
is Darshan Moha (faith-deluding karma). Owing to its
rise, the Jiva is found with false belief; then he perversely believes
the Jiva etc. essential Tattvas.
Purposeless Substances (Principles)
are the purposeful and purposeless substances?
Jiva has only one purpose and it is that he should not be miserable but be
happy. No Jiva has any other purpose. And non-occurrence of sorrow and
occurrence of happiness is one and the same thing, because the absence of
misery is nothing but happiness and the accomplishment of this purpose takes
place by acquiring right belief of Jiva etc. Tattvas
does it happen?
of all for eradicating miseries, one must possess the discriminating knowledge
of the self and the non- self. If one does not have the discriminative
knowledge of the self and non-self then how can he eradicate his misery
without identifying the self? Or knowing the self & non-self as to be one
thing, if for rooting out the sorrow of the self, one does the treatment of
the other non-self thing, how can then the sorrow of the self be rooted out?
Or the non- self things are distinctly different from the self, but if one
holds the feeling of I-ness and mineness in those non- self things, then
misery alone results. The misery gets eradicated only on attaining the
discriminative knowledge of the self and non-self. And the knowledge of the
self and non- self is attained only after having got the discriminative
knowledge of Jiva (soul) and Ajiva (non-soul) substances,
because the one himself is Jiva (soul) and the body, etc. are Ajiva
If through distinctive
characteristics (differences) etc., the Jiva-Ajiva are
identified, then the separateness of self and non-self may be comprehended;
hence one ought to know Jiva-Ajiva. Or, on acquiring the
knowledge of Jiva-Ajiva, the substances by contrary belief of
which one used to suffer from misery, now by attaining the right knowledge of
the same, misery gets eradicated; hence, acquiring knowledge of Jiva-Ajiva
is a must.
Further, the cause of
sorrow is bondage of karmic matter and its causes are false belief,
etc. influx (instincts). If one does not identify these, does not know these
as to be the root cause of sorrow, how can then he uproot them? And if one
does not eradicate these instincts, how would not then the karmic
bondage take place? Therefore, misery alone is caused. Or the false belief,
etc. instincts (dispositions) are misery -incarnate. If those are not
identified correctly as they really are, then one cannot eradicate them and
consequently, one would remain miserable only; hence, one must know Asrava
Further, the cause of
all miseries is karmic bondage. If one does not know this then one
would not make effort to get rid of it; then due to its instrumentality one
would remain miserable. Therefore, one must know Bandha (Bondage).
And uprooting of
Asrava (influx) is Samvara (stoppage); if one does not know its (Samvara
's) differentia then one would not indulge in it; then influx (Asrava)
only would continue, due to which misery alone would be caused both in present
and in future. Therefore, one must know Samvara (stoppage).
partial eradication of karmic bondage is termed as Nirjara
(partial sheddingoff). If one does not know it, then he would not make
effort to follow it; consequently, the karmic bondage would persist
wholly, due to which misery alone would continue. Hence, one must know
Nirjara (partial shedding off of impurity).
And the absolute up
rooting of all sorts of karmic bondage is termed as Moksha
(perfect liberation). If one does not identify it, he would not make effort
for evolving it, then he will continue suffering from the agonies in the world
produced by karmic bondage. Hence, one must know Moksha
(liberation). Thus, one should know Jiva, Ajiva etc. seven
Further, if someone
may know the seven Tattvas from scripture but until "those are exactly
so only" - such sort of a crystal clear conception is not evolved, what is
then the advantage of such knowledge? Therefore, right belief of Tattvas
is fruitful. Thus, only on acquiring the true belief of Jiva etc.
Tattvas, the purpose of eradicating miseries is accomplished. Hence, one
should know that the Jiva etc. substances only are the purposeful
details of these (Tattvas) are Punya (virtue) and Papa (vice)
etc; their true belief also is fruitful because detailed exposition is more
effective than general exposition. Thus, these substances are purposeful;
hence, on acquiring their right belief, misery ends and real happiness evolves
and without their right belief misery continues and happiness does not evolve.
And besides above
stated Padarthas (substances) there are other innumerable substances;
all those are purposeless because possessing or not possessing their right
belief is in no way the cause of happiness or misery.