Further, he tries to
gather the sensual objects, (but) it either does not remain associated for
long time or mostly the company of all the desired objects is never met with.
So this anxiety continues. And by keeping those objects under his control, he
very frequently indulges in them, but they do not remain under his control.
Those separate substances change, independently on their own, or depend on the
rise of Karmas. Such bondage of Karmas takes place on the
evolution of suitable auspicious disposition (pious thoughts) and later on
they come to rise state which is clearly seen. Even on making several efforts,
without the Nimitta of Karmas, the external objects are not met
Further, leaving one
object he indulges in other object, thus behaves ravenously; what can be
achieved from it? As a voracious person requiring a quintal food gets a
particle of food; can his hunger be quenched? Similarly, can the desire of the
one who is desirous of obtaining all the objects, be satisfied by obtaining
only one object? Happiness is not possible without the end of desire; hence
this effort is false.
Jivas are seen becoming happy by adopting such means (efforts); how do
you say it to be totally false?
Jivas do not become happy, but fallaciously consider themselves to be
happy. If they have become happy, how will there remain the desire for other
objects? As on getting the disease cured, why one would like to take other
medicine? Similarly, on the end of misery, why one would like to have other
objects? Therefore, if by enjoying the object, the desire ends then we may
treat it to be happiness. But so long as the particular objects is not
enjoyed, till then its desire persists, and the moment that object is enjoyed,
at the same moment the desire of enjoying the other object is seen developing;
how can this be treated as happiness? For example, some voracious poor person
got a particle of food and feels happiness by eating it, similarly this great
greedy person got one desired object and he feels happy to obtain it, (but) in
real sense there is no happiness.
is wrong if one satisfies his desire by enjoying the objects one after the
other similar to the person who satisfies his hunger by eating the corn bit by
may be accepted provided those corn-bits get accumulated, but when the next
bit is eaten, by then the earlier bit gets driven out, how will then the
appetite be quenched ? Similarly, (if) in the knowing process the knowledge of
objects gets accumulated then the desire may get fulfilled, consummated, but
when he starts knowing the next object by then the knowledge of the object
known earlier vanishes; how will then the desire get fulfilled? Without
consummation of desire the commotion does not end and without end of commotion
how can it be called happiness?
Further, the enjoyment
of even one object takes place under the influence of wrong-faith etc.,
therefore, the bondage of Karmas being the cause of forthcoming many
miseries takes place. Hence, in the present moment also it is not happiness,
nor is the cause of happiness in future; so it is assuredly misery.
The same is stated in
Pravachanasara as below:
vichinram bandhkaranmm vismam
Jam idiahin ladha
tan, sokukham dukhmaiv tha
Happiness derived through sense organs is dependent, amenable to disturbances,
terminable, cause of bondage and fluctuating, hence, it is assuredly misery in
In this way the
efforts made by this mandane being should be known as false.
What is the right
effort then? When the desire comes to an end and the enjoyment of all objects
continues simultaneously then this misery ends, but the desire comes to an end
only when Moha (delusion) perishes, and simultaneous enjoyment of all
the objects is possible only on attainment of Kevala Jnana
(Omniscience). The means of these is the attainment of Samyag-darshan
(right belief) etc. and the same should be known as the right means.
In this way the
Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana also becomes
cause of misery owing to Nimitta (association) of Moha
Knowing (of the objects) does not materialize owing to rise of Jnanavarana
and Darshanavarana Karmas hence regard them to be the cause of
misery; why do you say the Kshayopashama as to be the cause of misery?
Answer: If 'not
knowing' be the cause of misery then the Pudgalas (matter) should also
suffer from misery; but the root cause of misery is the desire and the desire
is evolved owing to the Kshayopashama only, therefore,
Kashayopashama is said to be the cause of misery but in reality
Kashayopashama also is not the cause of misery. The desire of sensual
objects which evolves due to Moha (delusion), that (desire) alone is to
be known as the cause of misery.
Misery caused by
Rise of 'Mohaniya Karma' and Release from it
Firstly, owing to rise
of darshan Moha wrong belief is caused due to which the
substance is not found as per one's belief and his belief is not according to
as the substance is; therefore, he always remains agitated.
For example, someone
puts on a cloth on a mad man. That mad man knowing that cloth as his own limb
believes the self and the cloth as one entity. That cloth being under the
control of dresser, he (the dresser) sometimes tears it, sometimes joins it,
sometimes snatches it, sometimes puts on new cloth, thus behaves in many ways.
That mad man believes it under his control, whereas its functioning is under
other's control, due to which he feels very much dejected. Similarly, the rise
of Karmas produced the association of body to this Jiva. This
Jiva, knowing that body as one's own limb, believes the self and the body
as one entity (mass). That body being dependent on Karmas, sometimes
becomes thin, sometimes becomes obese, sometimes gets destroyed, sometimes
gets newly created -thus different conditions are produced. This Jiva
believes it to be under his control, whereas its functioning is under other's
control, due to which he feels very much dejected.
Further, where that
mad man was staying, there came from somewhere some persons, horses, wealth,
etc. and halted there. That mad man knows them as his own but they being under
their own control, some come, some depart and some modify into different
forms; that mad person believes all those (objects) under his control and
their actions take place under other's control due to which he feels very much
dejected. Similarly, wherever this Jiva obtains (new) embodied form,
there come from somewhere, son, horse, wealth, etc. on their own. This Jiva
knows them to be his own. But they being under their own control, some arrive,
some depart and some modify into different forms. This Jiva believes
all those (objects) under his control and their actions take place under
other's control, due to that he feels very much dejected.
Sometimes the functioning or actions of body and son, etc. also appear to be
under the control of this Jiva; then at least at that time, this
Jiva feels happy?
Coincidently, on meeting of the tendency of the desire of Jiva and of
the destined change of the body, etc., some object modifies in a particular
way as per his desire, therefore, at some moment, while thinking about the
same event, one feels it to be happiness, but all the objects do not modify in
all respects according to his desire, hence, in his thought-process, various
forms of agitation continue incessantly.
seeing the objects modifying in someway according to his desire, this Jiva
feels oneness and mineness in the body, son, etc. So owing to this
understanding, he always remains agitated from the anxiety of producing,
nourishing and protecting them. Even by bearing several types of pains he
wishes good of them.
And the desire of
enjoying the objects, occurrence of passions, agreeable-disagreeable feeling
in external objects, adoption of contrary means, disbelief in right means and
misconjecturing - the single root cause of all these is wrong faith (misbelief).
On its destruction, all (perversities) get destroyed; therefore, the root of
all miseries is this wrong faith only.
Further, he does not
make effort to destroy that wrong faith also since he has accepted the wrong
faith as to be the right faith; why would then he make effort?
Further, if by chance
the five-sensed rational being contemplates about the means of ascertaining
the Tattvas (realities), there upon, if due to misfortune, he comes
into contact with the false deity, false preceptor, false scripture, then the
misbelief in Tattvas gets fostered. His understanding was that he will
be benefited by these but they provide such a means due to which he may become
unconscious. He was making efforts for ascertaining the true nature of
substances (reality) but contrarily becomes firm in false-belief and
consequently due to increase of passions and sensual desires, becomes more
Further, if by chance
the Nimitta of true deity-preceptor- scripture is also met with, even
then he does not develop belief in the real sense of their preaches, (but)
remains a misbeliever of Tattvas (realities) owing to faith in
conventional preaching. There, if passions become feeble and the desire for
objects is reduced then he becomes less miserable, but afterwards reverts to
same condition. Therefore, whatever efforts this mundane being makes, they,
too, are false.
Moreover, the other
effort that this mundane being adopts is that he wishes to modify the
substances according to his belief. If those objects get modified
(accordingly) then his belief may be true; but the substances are eternal,
separate from each other and modify within their respective limits. None is
dependent on other, none modifies by any other causing it to modify. Desiring
to modify them is no remedy; it is assuredly wrong faith.