Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Introduction
Prologue
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)
  Glossary

EXPOSITION OF MISERIES OF MUNDANE EXISTENCE AND BLISS OF LIBERATION

 

 

Further, he tries to gather the sensual objects, (but) it either does not remain associated for long time or mostly the company of all the desired objects is never met with. So this anxiety continues.  And by keeping those objects under his control, he very frequently indulges in them, but they do not remain under his control. Those separate substances change, independently on their own, or depend on the rise of Karmas. Such bondage of Karmas takes place on the evolution of suitable auspicious disposition (pious thoughts) and later on they come to rise state which is clearly seen. Even on making several efforts, without the Nimitta of Karmas, the external objects are not met with.

 

Further, leaving one object he indulges in other object, thus behaves ravenously; what can be achieved from it? As a voracious person requiring a quintal food gets a particle of food; can his hunger be quenched? Similarly, can the desire of the one who is desirous of obtaining all the objects, be satisfied by obtaining only one object?  Happiness is not possible without the end of desire; hence this effort is false.

 

Question: Many Jivas are seen becoming happy by adopting such means (efforts); how do you say it to be totally false?

 

Answer: The Jivas do not become happy, but fallaciously consider themselves to be happy. If they have become happy, how will there remain the desire for other objects? As on getting the disease cured, why one would like to take other medicine? Similarly, on the end of misery, why one would like to have other objects? Therefore, if by enjoying the object, the desire ends then we may treat it to be happiness. But so long as the particular objects is not enjoyed, till then its desire persists, and the moment that object is enjoyed, at the same moment the desire of enjoying the other object is seen developing; how can this be treated as happiness? For example, some voracious poor person got a particle of food and feels happiness by eating it, similarly this great greedy person got one desired object and he feels happy to obtain it, (but) in real sense there is no happiness.

 

Question: What is wrong if one satisfies his desire by enjoying the objects one after the other similar to the person who satisfies his hunger by eating the corn bit by bit?

 

 Answer: This may be accepted provided those corn-bits get accumulated, but when the next bit is eaten, by then the earlier bit gets driven out, how will then the appetite be quenched ? Similarly, (if) in the knowing process the knowledge of objects gets accumulated then the desire may get fulfilled, consummated, but when he starts knowing the next object by then the knowledge of the object known earlier vanishes; how will then the desire get fulfilled?  Without consummation of desire the commotion does not end and without end of commotion how can it be called happiness?

 

Further, the enjoyment of even one object takes place under the influence of wrong-faith etc., therefore, the bondage of Karmas being the cause of forthcoming many miseries takes place. Hence, in the present moment also it is not happiness, nor is the cause of happiness in future; so it is assuredly misery.

 

The same is stated in Pravachanasara as below:

 

Sapram badhasahim, vichinram bandhkaranmm vismam

Jam idiahin ladha tan, sokukham dukhmaiv tha

 

Meaning: Happiness derived through sense organs is dependent, amenable to disturbances, terminable, cause of bondage and fluctuating, hence, it is assuredly misery in disguise.

 

In this way the efforts made by this mandane being should be known as false.

 

What is the right effort then? When the desire comes to an end and the enjoyment of all objects continues simultaneously then this misery ends, but the desire comes to an end only when Moha (delusion) perishes, and simultaneous enjoyment of all the objects is possible only on attainment of Kevala Jnana (Omniscience). The means of these is the attainment of Samyag-darshan (right belief) etc. and the same should be known as the right means.

 

In this way the Kshayopashama of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana also becomes cause of misery owing to Nimitta (association) of Moha (delusion).

 

Question: Knowing (of the objects) does not materialize owing to rise of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana Karmas hence regard them to be the cause of misery; why do you say the Kshayopashama as to be the cause of misery?

 

Answer: If 'not knowing' be the cause of misery then the Pudgalas (matter) should also suffer from misery; but the root cause of misery is the desire and the desire is evolved owing to the Kshayopashama only, therefore, Kashayopashama is said to be the cause of misery but in reality Kashayopashama also is not the cause of misery. The desire of sensual objects which evolves due to Moha (delusion), that (desire) alone is to be known as the cause of misery.

 

Misery caused by Rise of 'Mohaniya Karma' and Release from it

 

Firstly, owing to rise of darshan Moha wrong belief is caused due to which the substance is not found as per one's belief and his belief is not according to as the substance is; therefore, he always remains agitated.

 

 For example, someone puts on a cloth on a mad man. That mad man knowing that cloth as his own limb believes the self and the cloth as one entity. That cloth being under the control of dresser, he (the dresser) sometimes tears it, sometimes joins it, sometimes snatches it, sometimes puts on new cloth, thus behaves in many ways. That mad man believes it under his control, whereas its functioning is under other's control, due to which he feels very much dejected. Similarly, the rise of Karmas produced the association of body to this Jiva. This Jiva, knowing that body as one's own limb, believes the self and the body as one entity (mass). That body being dependent on Karmas, sometimes becomes thin, sometimes becomes obese, sometimes gets destroyed, sometimes gets newly created -thus different conditions are produced. This Jiva believes it to be under his control, whereas its functioning is under other's control, due to which he feels very much dejected.

 

Further, where that mad man was staying, there came from somewhere some persons, horses, wealth, etc. and halted there. That mad man knows them as his own but they being under their own control, some come, some depart and some modify into different forms; that mad person believes all those (objects) under his control and their actions take place under other's control due to which he feels very much dejected.  Similarly, wherever this Jiva obtains (new) embodied form, there come from somewhere, son, horse, wealth, etc. on their own. This Jiva knows them to be his own. But they being under their own control, some arrive, some depart and some modify into different forms.  This Jiva believes all those (objects) under his control and their actions take place under other's control, due to that he feels very much dejected.

 

Question: Sometimes the functioning or actions of body and son, etc. also appear to be under the control of this Jiva; then at least at that time, this Jiva feels happy?

 

Answer: Coincidently, on meeting of the tendency of the desire of Jiva and of the destined change of the body, etc., some object modifies in a particular way as per his desire, therefore, at some moment, while thinking about the same event, one feels it to be happiness, but all the objects do not modify in all respects according to his desire, hence, in his thought-process, various forms of agitation continue incessantly.

 

Further, sometime, seeing the objects modifying in someway according to his desire, this Jiva feels oneness and mineness in the body, son, etc. So owing to this understanding, he always remains agitated from the anxiety of producing, nourishing and protecting them. Even by bearing several types of pains he wishes good of them.

 

 And the desire of enjoying the objects, occurrence of passions, agreeable-disagreeable feeling in external objects, adoption of contrary means, disbelief in right means and misconjecturing - the single root cause of all these is wrong faith (misbelief).  On its destruction, all (perversities) get destroyed; therefore, the root of all miseries is this wrong faith only.

 

 Further, he does not make effort to destroy that wrong faith also since he has accepted the wrong faith as to be the right faith; why would then he make effort?

 

Further, if by chance the five-sensed rational being contemplates about the means of ascertaining the Tattvas (realities), there upon, if due to misfortune, he comes into contact with the false deity, false preceptor, false scripture, then the misbelief in Tattvas gets fostered. His understanding was that he will be benefited by these but they provide such a means due to which he may become unconscious. He was making efforts for ascertaining the true nature of substances (reality) but contrarily becomes firm in false-belief and consequently due to increase of passions and sensual desires, becomes more miserable.

 

Further, if by chance the Nimitta of true deity-preceptor- scripture is also met with, even then he does not develop belief in the real sense of their preaches, (but) remains a misbeliever of Tattvas (realities) owing to faith in conventional preaching. There, if passions become feeble and the desire for objects is reduced then he becomes less miserable, but afterwards reverts to same condition. Therefore, whatever efforts this mundane being makes, they, too, are false.

 

Moreover, the other effort that this mundane being adopts is that he wishes to modify the substances according to his belief. If those objects get modified (accordingly) then his belief may be true; but the substances are eternal, separate from each other and modify within their respective limits. None is dependent on other, none modifies by any other causing it to modify.  Desiring to modify them is no remedy; it is assuredly wrong faith.