Doha: Mithyabhav abhavtay, jo prgatai nijbhav
So Jeywant rho sada, yih hee moksh upav
Let the intrinsic nature of self (soul) remain
victorious always which gets manifested due to termination of false
belief, etc. This alone is the means of Liberation.
Now, in this Shastra light is thrown on the path
of liberation. Liberation is the `Release from bondage'. This soul is
having bondage of Karmas (Subtle matter particles or atoms of
Karman-Vargana, which are characterized with bonding power with
soul.) and due to that bondage the soul is suffering from miseries.
Although Jiva is continuously trying also to ward off the misery
but without attaining the right means misery does not end and misery is
also unbearable; therefore, this Jiva is becoming restless.
Thus the root cause of all miseries to this Jiva
is the karmic bondage. Its destruction (separation) is Emancipation
(liberation) and same is the supreme welfare and the prime duty is to make
true effort for the same; therefore, all preaching is for the same.
Just as a physician first tells the patient about the
diagnosis of disease as to how he got diseased, thereafter he tells him
about the different conditions resulting from the disease. Thereby the
patient infers that he assuredly has this disease. Then the physician
further tells him about the means of curing the disease in various ways
and makes him believe about the appropriateness of the treatment. Giving
such advice is the duty of physician. And if that patient adopts that
means then he can enjoy his natural state after freeing himself from the
disease. This is the duty of the patient.
Similarly, here the Jiva (mundane being) having
karmic bondage is first being told the reason for the karmic
bondage as to how he got entangled with the Karmas. Then he is told
about the various conditions, which he undergoes. Thereby the Jiva
concludes that he assuredly has such karmic bondage and then he is
further told in various ways about the means of release from that
karmic bondage and the physician makes him believe about the efficacy
of the means. So much is the sermon of the scriptures. If this Jiva
makes efforts accordingly then by freeing himself from karmic
bondage he can enjoy his natural bliss. This is the duty of Jiva.
Diagnosis of Karmic Bondage
Now the diagnosis of karmic bondage is
described. Due to karmic bondage transmigration of soul in various
alien dispositions is found. One fixed state is not possible. Therefore,
the state with karmic bondage is called `Mundane- existence (Sansara).
In this mundane-existence there are infinite times infinite Jiva
Dravyas (Soul-substances); they all are having karmic-bondage
from eternity. It is not so that earlier the soul (Jiva) was
separate and the karmic matter was separate and later on these got
intermingled. How is it then? As in the Merugiri (Meru
mountain), naturally existing molecules, there are infinite atoms existing
from eternity in a single-bonded form. From them many atoms get separated,
many new atoms get united and thus their union and separation continues.
Similarly, in this universe the one soul substance and infinite
matter-particles (atoms) in the form of Karmas are found inbred
form since eternity; afterwards many get separated, many get united and
thus their union and separation continues.
Establishing Eternity of Karmic Bondage
Here arises the question as to how Karmas are
eternal because matter-particles (atoms) turn into karmic matter
owing to the instrumental cause (Nimitta) of attachment (Raag)
Answer: Attributing instrumentality is possible
only when there is a new modification; there is no role of Nimitta
in beginningless state. As the bondage of fresh matter-particles (atoms)
occurs only due to (difference in) the degrees of smoothness- roughness.
But in the molecules of Mountain Merugiri, etc, the bondage of
matter-particles (atoms) is from beginningless time. So what is the
purpose (function) of Nimitta there? Similarly, changing of fresh
matter-particles (atoms) into karmic matter results only due to
attachment etc, (impure) dispositions of the soul. But the matter
particles which are (already existing) in the form of karmic matter
from beginningless time, what is the purpose (function) of Nimitta
there? Moreover, if in the beginningless state also Nimitta is
accepted then `beginninglessness' is not established. Hence, the bondage
of karmic matter is to be accepted from beginningless time. In
Tattava-Pradeepika commentary of Prauachansara
Shastra, there is a Samanya Jneyaadhikar; therein it is
stated that `The associating (instrumental) cause of attachment (Raag)
etc, is karmic matter (Dravya- Karma) and the
associating cause of karmic matter is attachment (Raag) etc.
There, a question is raised that in believing so the
inter-dependence-fault (Itaretarashraya Dosha) arises, i.e.,
that depends on it and it depends on that; there is no stoppage anywhere.
There the following reply is given:-
"Neivam anadi prsidh drvyakrm smbandhsya tetr
Meaning: In this way there is no fault of
interdependence because the association of karmic matter is
axiomatic from beginningless time, there it has been accepted as an
This is what is stated in scripture and logically also
this alone is possible that if without the instrumental cause of Karmas
abinitio Jiva gets entangled in attachment, etc. then attachment
etc. would become the nature of Jiva, because that which is found
without any other associating cause, same is called the nature (Swabhava).
Hence, the association with the karmic matter is established from
Here again the question arises: `When the two
substances are distinctly separate, how could such relationship between
them be possible from eternity?'
Explanation: As from the origin itself, the
bondage of water and milk, gold and stone, husk and seed and oil and
sesame is found, these are not intermingled newly. Similarly, the bondage
of soul and karmic matter be known from begnningless time. They are
not intermingled newly. As from beginningless time many substances are
quite separate and in the same way many substances are in bolded form
(intermingled state); thus in the possibility of being so, there appears
to be no contradiction.
Question: Asserting the state of bondage or
association is possible then only when the (two distinct): things are
firstly separate and then get intermingled. How is here the bondage of
soul and karmic matter asserted to be existing from beginningless
Answer: These were in intermingled state from
eternity but later on got separated then it was known that they were
separate, so got separated. Therefore, formerly also they were separate;
thus by inference as well as by omniscience these clearly appear
separate. On account of this, their separateness exits in spite of their
being in bonded state. And from that separateness point of view only their
bondage or association is asserted because in intermingled state of
different substances, irrespective of their intermingling afresh or
already being in intermingled state, asserting in this way only is
possible. Thus, the bondage of this soul and Karmas is from
Distinctiveness of Soul and Karmas
Jiva-Dravya (soul substance) possesses
sentience attribute (Chetana Guna) as its distinctive
characteristic in the form of knowing and seeing and it being
imperceptible by senses has immaterial form, a substance having
innumerable spatial units (Pradeshas) with the power of
contraction-expansion. And the Karma is an insentient matter devoid
of sentience attribute and has material form, is a mass of infinite
matter-articles (atoms), hence it is not a single substance. Thus are
these Jivas (souls) and Karmas (karmic matter) having
relationship since eternity. Nevertheless, none of the space-points of
Jiva changes into karmic matter form and none of the atoms of
karmic matter change into Jiva form, both, by retaining
their own distinctive characteristics, exist distinctly separate. For
example, if there be a compound molecule of gold and silver, even then the
gold by retaining its yellowness, etc. attributes remains distinctly
different and silver by retaining its whiteness, etc, attributes remains
distinctly different. Similarly, the soul and Karmas should be
known as distinct and separate.
Question: The matter to matter bondage is
possible but how can the bondage of matter (material particles) with the
immaterial soul substance be possible?
Answer: As the bondage of subtle matter
particles (atoms) which are not perceptible to senses and the gross
matter- particles (molecules) which are perceptible to senses is accepted,
similarly the bondage of immaterial soul which is not perceptible to
senses and material Karmas worthy of being perceptible to senses
should be accepted. Moreover, in this process of bondage none acts as the
doer of other; so long as the bondage continues till then these remain
united, do not get separated and the relationship of cause and effect
continues in them. This much alone be known as the bondage here. So,
there is no contradiction in being this type of bondage between the
material Karmas and the immaterial soul.
Thus as is explained the eternal karmic bondage
to one Jiva, similarly it should be understood about each of the
infinite Jivas (souls).