realistic point of view, the reduction in passion amounts to part evolution of
conduct (Charitra) nevertheless, from conventional point of view, where such
reduction of passions is found whereby one accepts Shravaka Dharma (partial
continence & vows found in householder�s state) or Muni Dharma (complete
continence & vows found in true monk�s state)-such state only is regarded as
Charitra (conduct). Such degrees of reduction in passions is not found in an
incontinent person. Therefore, here (from first to fourth Gunasthana)
incontinence exists. In spite of the states of intensity and feebleness in
passions, as from the Pramatta Gunasthana onwards everywhere the state of the
soul is called the state of Sakal Sanyama (complete continence), similarly,
from the Mithyatva (first etc.) up to Asanyama (fourth) Gunasthanas everywhere
the state of solid is called the state of Asanyama (incontinence) only. It is
to be noted that in all these states, the degree of incontinence is not
Anantaanubandhi does to destroy Samyaktva (right belief), then on its rise,
how one attains the state of /Sasadana Gunasthana after falling from the state
of Samyaktva (right belief)?
Answer: For example, a
person is suffering from such intense disease that it may cause end of human
life. And after end of human life, if gets birth in celestial life, then this
latter state of existence is not evolved during the diseased state. Here the
rise of age karma of human life is continuing. Similarly, in the case of a
true believer the rise of Anantaanubandhi took place which became the cause of
end of right belief, (Samyaktva); therefore, such rise (of Anantaanubandhi) is
stated to be the opponent (Sasadana) of Samyaktva. And on destruction of right
belief, the perverse belief (Mithyatva) is evolve; this did not happen in
Sasadana Gunasthana. Therefore, it should be noted that here (in Sasadana) the
duration of period is of Upashama Samyaktva (subsidential type of true belief)
Such happens the state
of Anantaanubandhi anger, etc., four passions, on evolution of right belief.
Therefore, the attainment of Samyaktva (right-belief) is also stated to have
been evolved on subsidence, etc. of seven Prakritis.
Question: How is
Samyaktva Margana classified in six categories?
Answer: The Samyaktva
is of three types only. And the absence of right belief is Mithyatva (perverse
belief). And the mixed disposition of the both (Samyaktva & Mithyatva) is the
Mishra (state of mixed disposition). The disposition which is destroyer of
Samyaktva s Sasadana (state of downfall). Thus on pondering over the Jiva from
the viewpoint of Samyaktva- Margana (soul-quest by right-belief) the six kinds
(of Samyaktva Margana are stated.
Here someone may say
that one who has come in Mithyatva state after falling from Samyaktva should
be called to be in the state of Mithyatva-Samyaktva. But this is wrong,
because its existence is found in an Abhavya (incapable soul) also. Moreover,
the use of the word Mithyatva Samyaktva itself is incorrect. As in Sanyama
Margana (soul quest by continence) the Asamyama (state of incontinence) is
also included; in Bhavya Margana (capable soul quest) the Abhavya (incapable
souls) is enumerated. Similarly, in Samyaktva-Margana the Mithyatva is
enumerated. But one should not understand Mithyatva to be a kind of Samyaktva.
On deliberation from Samyaktva point of view, many Jivas may be found without
right belief (Samyaktva), there Mithyatva is found; for explaining this state,
Mithyatva is enumerated in Samyaktva Margana. Similarly, the states of
Sasadana (downfall and Mishra (mixed) are also not the kinds of Samyaktva. It
should be known that Samyaktva is only of three kinds.
Here it is stated that
by subsidence, etc. of karmas the subsidential, etc. types of Samyaktva are
evolved, but subsidence, etc. of the karmas are not caused by Jiva. He should
make effort for ascertaining the Tattvas; owing to its instrumentality, the
subsidence, etc. of karmas take place on their own; then he attains belief in
Thus one should know
the kinds and nature of Samyaktva
Eight Angas (virtues)
of Right Belief
(right belief) is described to be having the following eight Angas (virtues).
(Doubtlessness in Tattvas)
2. Nihshankitatva: (Desirelessness
for worldly pleasures).
(Non-repugnance at the afflicted ones)
(Non-stupidity in Deva-Guru-Dharma)
(Developing spiritual qualities)
(Stabilization in religion)
(Glorification of religion)
(Fraternity towards coreligionists)
There, the absence of
fear, or absence of doubt, in Tattvas is Nihshankitatva (doubtlessness). And
absence of attachment in and craving for nonself objects, etc. is
Nihkankshitatva (desirelessness). And the absence of malice-form of disgust in
other nonself objects is Nirvichikitsatva (non- repugnance). And the absence
of delusion in the form of false ascertainment about Tattvas and Deva etc. is
Amudhadrishtitva (non-stupidity); acquiring excellence n spiritual qualities
and observance of religious practices is called Upabrinhana. This Anga
(virtue) is also termed as Upagoohana which means veiling of shortcomings &
demerits of coreligionist. And reinstalling the self as well as other
coreligionists in one�s own intrinsic nature and of Jina's religion is the
Sthitikarana Anga. Spreading and promoting the glory of one's own nature as
well as of in a religion is Prabhavana-Anga. And cultivation of deep
affection in one's own nature as well as in Jina's religion and coreligionists
is Vatsalya Anga. Thus, one should know these eight Angas.
As the hands, legs,
etc. are the limbs of human body, similarly, these are the Angas (limbs) of
Samyagdarshan (right belief).
Question: Even, many
true believers are found having fear, desire, disgust, etc. passions and even
many misbelievers are not found having these passions; therefore, how do you
say the Nihsankita etc. Angas to be the organs of Samyaktva?
Answer: For example-
hands, legs, etc. are stated to be the limbs of human body; there may be some
such person who may not be having any one of the limbs like leg, etc. Although
he is said to be possessing human body, yet without those missing limbs he
does not look handsome and is not able to function efficiently in all
respects. Similarly, the Nihshankita etc. are stated to be the Angas (limbs or
virtues) of Samyaktva (right belief); there may be some true believer who may
not be having any of these Nihshankitatva etc. Angas. There he is said to be
having Samyaktva but without those missing Angas (virtues) such right belief
is neither pure nor efficacious in all respects. Further for example, a monkey
also possesses hands, legs etc. limbs, but these limbs are not similar to
those possessed by a person. Similarly, the misbelievers are also found having
conventional form of Nihshankita, etc. Angas; but are not of the same form as
are found in a true believer form real point of view.
25 Blemishes of Samyag
Further, in the
discussion of Samyaktva (right belief) twenty-five blemishes are described:-
8- Doubts, desire etc.
8- Arrogance etc.
3- Stupidities (follinesses),
6- Worthless places
(not worth worshipping or visiting).
These blemishes are
not found in a true believer. Rarely some fault may be found in a true
believer but the right belief is not destroyed totally. There, one should now
that in such a state Samyaktva gets defiled only. And further.....
(The great Pandit Shri
Todarmalji could not conclude this 9th chapter and could not complete this
book due to untimely end of his life).