Parishaha-Jaya : With a view to remain steady on. the path of liberation and to
destroy the Karmic matter; ascetics should bear ch~erfully all the troubles that
might cause them distraction or pain. These troubles or hardships through which
the ascetics have to pass are called the Parishahas, i.e. sufferings. There are
twenty-two Parishahas which monks are expected to face unflillchingly. They are
(i) Kslzut, i.e. hunger,
(ii) Pipasa, i.e. thirst,
(iii) Shita, i.e. cold,
(iv) Ushna, i.e. heat,
(v) Damsharnashaka, i.e. insect-bite,
(vi) Nagnya, i.e. nakedness,
(vii) Arati, i.e. ennui, or disagreeable surroundings,
(viii) (viii)Stri, i.e. seg_passion,
(ix) Charya, i.e. walking too much,
(x) Nishadya, i.e. continuous sitting in one posture,
(xi) Shayva, i.e. resting on hard earth,
(xi) Akrosha, i.e, abuse,
(xii) Vadha, i.e. beating,
(xiii) Yachana,i.e begging,
(xiv) Alabha, i.e. disappointment from getting no food,
(xvi) Roga, i.e. disease,
(xvii) Trnaspaashq,, i.e. thorn-pricks,
(xviii) Mala, i.e. hody dirt and impurities,
(xix) SatlcarapurQskara, i.e. disrespect shown by men,
(xx) Prajna, i.e. non-appreciation of learning,
(xxi) Ajnaraa, i.e, persistence of ignorance, and
(xxii) Adarshana, l,e, slack belief, for example, on failure to obtain
supc-,rnatural powers even after great piety and austerities begin to doubt the
truth of Jainism and its teachings.
:~;hould be ever endured without any feeling of vexation, by the ascetics who
desire to get rid of all cause for pain.
(f) The Charitra ;
The ascetics are also expected to strive to observe five kinds of conduct as
(i) Samayika, i.e. equanimity,
(ii) : Chhedapasthapaiaa,A."6. rrecOvery tif, eqdaniiitity after fall from it, -
(iii) Parilrara-Vishuddhi, i.e. pute arid absolute non-injury,
(iv) Suk.rhma-Samparziya, i:e.'all but entire freedom from passion, and ' ,
(v) Yathakyata, i.e. ideal and passionless conduct.
These five kinds
of conduct help to- maintain the spiritual discipline of the ascetics,
Samvara, i.e. the stoppage of the influx of Karmic matter into the soul, the
ascetics have to strive to effect Nirjara, i.e. the gradual removal of Karmic
matter from the soul if they have to proceed further on their path of
liberation. The main way to Nirjara' i.e. shedding of the Karmas; is the
observance of Tapa, i.e. penance or austerities, which is included in the
:tight-conduct. Tapa, i.e:'penance is twofold, viz. (a) Badaya y'apa, i.e.
external austerities, referring to food and physical activities and (b)
Abhyantara Tapa, i.e. internal austerities, referring to spiritual discipline.
Each of these 2 types of Tapas is of six kinds.-
(a) The Bahya Tapa
:The six external' austerities are as follows :'
(i) Anashana, i.e.
i.e. eating less than one's fill, or less ,than one has appetite for,
Vritti-Parisamkhyand, i.e. taking a mental vow to accept food from a householder
only if certain conditions are fulfilled without letting any one know about the
i.e. daily renunciation of one or more of six kinds of delicacies namely, ghee
(i.e. clarified butter), milk, curds, sugar, salt and oil.
Vivikta-Shayyasana, i.e. sitting and sleeping in a secluded place, devoid of
animate beings, and
(vi ) Kayalesha, i.
e. mortification of the body so long as the mind is not disturbed.
( b) The Abhyantra
Tapa : The six kinds of internal austerities are :
i.e. expiation or confession and repentance of sins,
(ii) Yinaya, i.e.
reverence or modest behaviour,
rendering service to other saints,
i.e. study of scriptures,
i.e. giving up attachment to the body, and
(vi) Dhyana, i.e.
concentration of mind.
These external and
internal penances show what a rigorous life of self-denial the ascetics have to
lead. The ascetic is to sustain the body with minimum feeding and to take
maximum work from it in the attainment of his spiritual ideal. In Jainism an
elaborate technique of fasting has been evolved and the ascetic is trained all
along his career so efficiently that when the hour of death comes, he accepts
voluntary fasting and gives up the body as easily as one would throw off the old
garment. The ascetic has always to take exercise in fasting by observing series
of fasts differently arranged.
Among the internal
penances special significance is attached to Dhyana, i.e. meditation, because it
is considered as the most important spiritual exercise whereby alone the soul
can make progress on the path to liberation and can destroy all the Karmas.
Attachment for beneficial and aversion from harmful objects have to be given up
to attain concentration of mind, which is the prerequisite of successful
meditation. It is always emphasised that the Shukla Dhyana i.e. pure meditation,
ultimately leads the soul to liberation because in Shukla Dhyana, an attempt is
made for complete cessation of physical, verbal and mental activities. When the
entire stock of Karmas is exhausted by following the rules of conduct laid down
by Jaina ethics, the soul shoots up to the top of the universe where the
liberated souls stay for ever.