2- physique (Kula) means natural constitution. Its characteristics , vary
according to the, kind �f the material molecules of which the external
bodies are made. The total number of �the kinds of physique, is
Soul-classes ( Jiva ; Samasa ).
Those common characteristics,, by which mundane souls, though of marry
distinctions and kinds,, may be distinguished by being collected into
groups, are called soul-classes.
Their main divisions are -14 which are given in commentary Gatha 15-17
Soul-quests ( Margana ) are conditions, forms �and qualities, etc., by
�means of �Which or amongst which souls are searched for. :
They are fourteen in number as follows:-
l-: Condition of existence ( Gati ).
2. Senses ( Indriya )
Embodiment ( Kaya ).
Vibratorya activities (Yoga )
Sex inclinations ( Vada ).
Knowledge ( Jnana;).
10 Thought-paint (Leshya)
12. Right belief (Samyaktva)
13. Rationality ( Sanjnitva ).
14. Assimilation ( Ahara ).
detailed knowledge of all: these technical terms consult Gommatasara Jiva
Kanda and Karma Kanda translated by Mr. J.L. Jaini, S,B.J. Vols. V and
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50. All the aforesaid conditions relate either to foreign substances or
foreign (modifications; hence ( they ) should be, renounce. Internal
principle, is one�s own substance, soul. ( It only ) should
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51; Conviction (in things ascertained as� they ) alone without ( any:)
perverse motive ( is ) right belief, ( Samyak Barshana. ( Knowledge)
front doubt, ( Samshaya), perversity ( Vimoha ) and Vaccilation (
Vibhrama ) is right knowledge (Samyak Jnana).
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52.: Conviction, from wavering ( Chala ), impurity ( Mala )t
and non-steadfastness ( Agarha ) alone ( is ) right belief. Correct
understanding ( Adhigama ) of what principle are worth renouncing and what
are worth realising, ( is ) light knowledge.
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53. The external causes of right belief are the Jain scriptures and the
persons who know them; while the destruction, etc, of
right-belief-deluding Karma are said to be the internal causes.
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54. Listen, ( just as ) Right Belief and Right knowledge are the ( causes
of ) liberation, ( so ) is Right Conduct. There-fore I shall describe
Right Conduct from ( both ) the real and the practical points of view.
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55. Right conduct from the practical point of view, is to practice
austerities from the practical stand-point, while Right Conduct from the
real point of view is to observe austerities from the real stand-point.
Right-belief, Right Knowledge together with Right Conduct were
described as the path liberation in Gatha 3.
Belief in order to be called Right Belief must be free from
perversity and falsity of motive. Real motive -6f �very �mundane
soul bent upon spiritual advancement is the realization of the self and
the attainment of true and perfect peace,-� freedom and happiness. AH
other motives which do not lead towards this goal, but rather mislead the
soul towards worldly pleasures, which are in� reality -the causes of
misery, are false and perverse. It is also necessary that right- belief
should be free from the defects of wavering, impurity and
non-steadfastness. la wavering condition of right belief, its substance
remains quite sound, but only the form is slightly disturbed as the
surface of an ocean is disturbed by waves, to illustrate which is
generally quoted the example of a person, who worships Shanti Natha in
preference to the other Tirthankaras for acquiring peace, plenty and
Impurity here implies the following five defects :-a) Doubt
(Shanka), b) Desire of sense pleasures (Kamksha), c)-
Disgust (Vichikitsa), 4) admiration of wrong believers (Anyadrishti
Non-steadfastness. This condition arises when right belief is not quite
fixed in true nature of things. For example worshipping in one�s own
temple in preference to the temple built by others. A person who has a
steadfast right belief knows that it does not make the slightest
difference, whether you worship in your temple or in one .built by your
The external cause of right belief is to study the Jaina Scriptures and to
attend upon those who know them fully well, with the object of
understanding the principles from them. The internal cause of right belief
is the subsidence, or destructive-subsidence, or destruction of the right
belief-deluding karma and of the four error-feeding (anantanubandhi)
passions. (For details see Gatha 26 Gommatasara Jiva Kanda by Mr. J. L.
Jaini S, B. J, Vol V.)
Right knowledge should always be free from doubt, perversity and
indifference. A soul possessing right knowledge has clear and correct
knowledge of the essential principles and has the capacity of
discrimination between what is worth renouncing and what is worth
Along with these two, i.e., right belief and right knowledge, right
conduct is an essential factor for the attainment of liberation; because
neither any one the three, nor any two of the three can constitute the
path of liberation. Right conduct has been described here as being of two
kinds. When austerities, etc., are practised from the practical point of
view, with the aim of attaining real right conduct, i.e.,
self-absorption, they are said to be practical right conduct. Being
absorbed h> one�s own true nature is the real austerity and the same is
the real right conduct.