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time is either of two kinds, instant and wink (avali) ; or of three kinds
(past, present and future). Past (time is) equal to the number (of the
liberated souls) who have destroyed their bodily forms, multiplied by
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32. The instants of the practical time are infinite times (of the number
of) atoms, which again are infinite times (of the number of) souls.
(Time-points) which are packed full in the universe, are (called) the real
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33. That by the help of which, all substances, soul, etc., are altered in
their own modifications, is �Time.� The four substances; the medium of
motion, (the medium of rest, space and time)- have ( only) their own
natural attributes and modifications.
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Time, (the other five) of these six substances,- ( are known ) as
�Extensive substances,� (Astikaya) Extensive substances occupy many
spatial, units, as mentioned in Jaina scriptures
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of matter are numerable, innumerable and infinite. Verily there are
innumerable points of space in . � medium of motion,� medium of rest� and
in each individual soul.
The same (innumerable number of spatial units are) in the universe; and in
the other, (non-universe) (there are) infinite (number of spatial units).
There is no extensiveness in Time; therefore it has one spatial
In Gatha No. 9 six principles were mentioned. Out of those the two, i.e.,
Soul and Matter, were dealt with in gathas 10 to 29. In Gathas 30-86 the
remaining four principles have been explained. They are auxiliary causes
to the main functions of Soul and Matter.
Medium of motion, is an essentially auxiliary cause of-the motion of
Soul and Matter.
Medium of Rest is an essentially auxiliary cause of the static condition
of Soul and Matter.
Space is that which-gives room to all substances, including Soul and
Time is the auxiliary cause of bringing about modifications, in all
substances, including Soul and Matter.
Out of these six principles, space is the biggest, having
infinite-dimensions all round. Within space there is the universe- which
contains all the other five� substances, which cannot exist beyond space.
Of the medium of motion and rest, single, immaterial substance pervading
t whole of the universe. -
The units of time (each of which is an immaterial and individual
substance) are very closely packed up in the universe. They are
innumerable in number.
Soul and Matter, being infinite, are found everywhere in the universe, in
their various gross or fine forms. In connection with this subject, it is
necessary to define and explain what a spatial unit (Pradesha) is.
Spatial unit is (hat part of space which is occupied by the smallest
indivisible particle of matter. It is a unit, generally employed in
measuring the dimensions of substances in the universe. If we measure
the universe taking a spatial unit as our measure, then we find �that
there are innumerable spatial units in it. The medium of Motion and the
medium of Rest are co-extensive with the universe and have thus a similar
number of spatial units. Souls are found in different bodies of different
dimensions in their mundane state, but still each one of them has the
capacity of extending throughout the whole universe Thus the spatial
units of each soul arc equal in number to those of the universe,
innumerable Matter exists in the universe either in the form of atoms or
in the form of molecules. Molecules are composed of either numerable or
innumerable : or infinite number of atoms. The-spatial units
of matter are thus numerable, innumerable or infinite.
Space substance is infinite in dimension and has thus, an infinite number
of spatial units.
five substances, except time, occupy more than one spatial unit. -They are
therefore called the five extensive substances, Pancha-Astikayas.
The points of time are also innumerable. Each one of these points has its
own separate and independent existence. Though each one of them i s
connected with another, it is never combined with it. There are
innumerable spatial units in the universe, so. the number of points of
time as well is innumerable., As each point of time occupies only one
spatial unit, and not more than one in any case, it is called
not-extensive substance, Akaya-Dravya.
In the universe there are only innumerable spatial units, how then, it may
be asked, can it give space to an infinite number of atoms and molecules.
The explanation is simple. The material atoms posses the capacity of
compressing an infinite number; of themselves into one molecule, which may
not occupy more than one spatial unit.. Take the case of light. The space
in a room may be occupied by the light of one lamp and also by the light
of as many lamps: as may be placed there.
In Gatha 31 Past time is equal to numerable winks multiplied by total
number of liberated souls.
As a matter of fact 608 mundane souls are liberated within every period
of 6 months and 8 instants. This process has been going on continuously
and uniformly since eternity. If we reduce 6 months and 8 instants into
winks and divide by 608, we obtain the average time for one soul to obtain
liberation, i e-, numerable winks. The number of, winks thus
obtained is constant and does not vary. The number of past liberated souls
is infinite and as shown: above it increases by 608 within the period
of every 6 months and 8 instants. Thus we arrive at the conclusion that
the length of past time is infinite and it increases by the constant
number of winks ( vide Gommatasara by Mr. J- L. Jaini, Jiva Kanda
8 Avalis or Winks
= 1 Kashta
= 1 Kala
= 1 Ghatika
= One day and night or 24 hours
= 24 mintes
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37. The Matter substance (is) material; all the rest are immaterial. Soul
(has) consciousness as its nature, all the rest are devoid of the
attribute of consciousness.