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Kundakunda Pushpanjali

 

Introduction

 

I.  Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )

 

II.  Non-Soul (Ajva)

  III.  Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava
 

IV.  Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)

  V.  Repentance, (Pratikramana)
  VI.  Renunciation, (pratyakhyana)
  VII.  Confession, (Alochana)
  VIII.  Expiation, (Prayaschitta)
  IX.  Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi)
  X.  Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti)
  XI.  Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya)
  XII.  Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)
 

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Chapter  I - Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )

 

 

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NIYAMASARA  ( Soul-Jiva )

 

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          1. Bowing to Vira Jina, who, by nature is the possessor of infinite and supreme knowledge and conation; I shall compose Niyama-Sara, preached by Kevalis and the Shruta Kevalis.

 

Commentary

          In this gatha, Shri Kunda-Kunda Acharya, who lived in the first century of the Vikrama Era, renders homage to the last of the twenty-four Tirthankaras, Lord Mahavira, also called Vira, and enshrines Him in his heart for the purification of his thoughts; so that he may be able to fulfil, his undertaking successfully. Further, the Acharya expresses it emphatically that whatever he will write will not be his won independent teaching, but will be fully based upon the authoritative pronouncement of Kevalis and Shruta-Kevalis.

          Kevalis are those Omniscient Supreme souls, who still occupy a highly refined physical body, but are free from the four destructive Ghatiya Karmas, and whose �perfect� ( Kevala ) knowledge is full, all- pervasive, and independent of senses, and comprehends all-at-once without effort, the whole manifested and unmanifested universe, with all its past and future modifications.

          Shruta-Kevalis are those saints who have obtained perfect knowledge of all the Scriptures.

 

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          2           In the Jaina Scriptures, the Path and the Fruit of the Path are described as the two parts The means of liberation constitute the Path, and liberation is the Fruit.

 

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          3. What is in reality worth doing ( is) Niyama, and that is belief, knowledge, �conduct. In order to avoid deflection, the word Sara has teen particularly affixed to it.

 

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          4. Niyama ( is ) the way to liberation; its fruit is supreme Nirvana. Each of these three, is again described.

 

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          5.  Belief in the Perfect Souls, the Scorers and the Principles is Right Belief.

          He who is free from all defects and is -possessed of all ( pure ) attributes is the supreme soul.

 

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          6. ( The defects are ) hunger, thirst, fear, anger attachment, delusion, anxiety, old age, disease, death, perspiration, fatigue, pride, indulgence, surprise, sleep birch, and restlessness

 

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          7.  One free from all defects and possessed of sublime grandeur  such as Omniscience  is called Paramatma  (the Highest Soil!) or the�Perfect One One who is not such, ( is ) not Paramatma. .

 

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          8. Words proceeding from his mouth, pure and free from the flaw of inconsistency are called Agama ( scripture. ) In that Agama the principles (Tativartha ) are enunciated.

 

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          9. Soul, Matter, medium of motion, medium of rest, space, ( substances ) having dimension, and Time, together with their various attributes and modifications are said to be the principles (Tattvartha.)

       

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          10. Soul is characterised by Upayoga. Upayoga is towards Darshana or Jnana. Jnana Upayoga is of two kinds, Swabhava Jnana or Vibhava Jnana.

 

Commentary.

          In Panchastikaya Samaya Sara, Volume iii of the Sacred Books of the Jainas Series, page 15, Professor Chakravarti says that the term Upayoga is used to denote Darshana and Jnana. Darshana is perception, and Jnana is knowledge.

In Dravya Samgraha, Volume I of the S B. J. page 9, Mr, Sarat Chandra Ghoshal says that Upayoga is of two kinds, being connected with Jnana, and Dirshana. Upayoga is the resultant of consciousness. Roughly,  Upayoga- may be said to be a sort of inclination which arises from  consciousness.  This inclination  is  either  towards Darshana or towards Jnana.

          Mr. J. L Jaini in his Gommatasara Jiva Kanda, Volume V. of S.:B. J. on page 326, translated Upayoga as conscious-attentiveness or attention.

          The difference between Darshana and Jnana consists �ii this, that in the former the details are not perceived, while in the latter the details are also known.

          Mr. Herbert Warren in his �Jainism� on page 29 says;- � Before we know a thing in a detailed way, there is the stage where we simply see, hear, or otherwise become conscious of it in a general way, without going into its ins and outs. We simply know it as belonging to a class. This is the first stage of knowledge it may be called detail-less knowledge or Indefinite cognition (Darshana). If this stage is not experienced there can be no knowledge of the thing-�

          Mr. J. L Jaini in his Gommatasara Jiva Kanda Volume V, 3- B. J. on page 245- translates Darshana as conation.

          In Webster�s New International Dictionary it is said that conation is present wherever consciousness tends of itself to pass from one condition to another.