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V. In Partial vow stage we have 6 S X 4 P x 3 S. LX 2 Pairs X 2 V = 1296 permanent combinations. Multiplying 1296 with 4 and 31 instead of 63 (as there is no injury to mobile, 31 combinations are not possible), we have ,60,704 Combinations.

VI. In Imperfect vow stage we have 4 P x 8 S. I. x 2 Pairs x 9 V = 216. With reference to assimilative vibrations we have 4 P x 1 male inclination x 2 Pairs x 2 V = 16. Thus we have 216 + 16= 232 permanent combinations As there is no injury to any embodiment. we have to multiply with 4 fear etc., thus there are 928 combinations in the sixth stage.

VII. In Perfect-vow stage there are 4 P x 3 S. I. x 2 Prs. x 9 V = 216 permanent combinations. Multiplying 216 with 4 imperma�nent combinations, we have 864 combinations in the 7th stage.

VIII. There are the same 864 combinations in the New Thought activity stage as in the 7th.

IX. There are no impermanent combinations in this the Advanced thought activity stage, and hereafter.

The Permanent combinations are:��

4 P X 3. S. I. X 9 V =    108

4 P X 2. S. I. X 9 V =    72

4 P X I. S. I. X 9 V =     36

3 P X I. S. I. X 9 V =     27

2 p x I. S. I. x 9 V =       18

1 P X I. S. I. x 9 V =      9

## Altogether                            270

In the Sanskrit Commentary, 86 Combinations of group No.8 (4 P x I. S. I. x 9 V) are not counted. If �we include them also, the total combinations will be 2�10 + 36 = 306.

X. In the Slightest delusion stage there are I P x 9 V = 9 per�manent combinations.

XI. In the Subsided delusion, there are only 9 combinations.

XII. In the Delusionless stage, there are the same 9 combinations.

XIII. In the Vibratory omniscient stage, there are 7 combinations.

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797 -798. Permanent multiplying combinations (Dhruva Guna- Kara- Bhanga). (from Downfall stage) to the New-thought, activity (stage are) respectively 1824. 1440. 168�1. 1296.232,216. and 216. (They) being multiplied by impermanent ones (make up the total number of) combinations (till the 8th stage). (There are only) permanent combinations further on. without any other combinations.

Commentary.

As stated in verse 796, all the combinations in the 13 stages are as follows:��

Stage.

Permanent Combinations.

Impermanent Combinations.

Total Combinations.

# I

16560 x

4 x 63

41.73.120

II

1824 x

4 x 63

5.59.648

III

1410 x

4 x 65

3.62.880

IV

1660

4 x 63

4.23.360

V

1296

4 x 63

1.60.704

VI

232

4

928

VII

216

4

864

VIII

216

4

864

IX

270

270

X

9

9

XI

9

9

XII

9

9

XIII

7

7

Total Inflow Combinations in the 13 stages.

55,82,672

We shall find in the above the description. the numerous thought. activities which Cause Inflow of new Karmic matter and its Bondage. If we take into account strongest, stronger, and strong, or mildest, milder and mild degrees of fruition of passions, and minor passions, and also the different kinds of swit and weak vibrations etc., the number of thought activities causing inflow will be a very large one indeed.

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799. Combined multiplicands for Wrong-belief (etc.,) four (stages), and for the Partial vow (stage) can be obtained by (spreading) six, five etc., (embodiments) till one, and then dividing them respectively by one, (two) etc., after multiplying (each to each.)

Commentary.

As has been stated in explanation to verse 795, there are.68 com�binations with reference to injury to anyone or more of the 6 em�bodiment still the 4th stage; and only 31 embodiment combinations in Partial vow stage as said in explanation to verse 796. This verse 799 describes the process of finding out the combined combinations. There are six embodiments, so they must be spread out and 1,2. 8, 4, 5, 6, be gradually written below them. (6/1 5/2 4/3 � 2/5 1/5)

The Combinations in case of injury to one of the 6 embodiments are 6/1 = 6.

The Combinations in case of injury to two of the 6 embodiments 6 X 5/1x2= 15.

The Combinations in case of injury to three of the 6 embodiment are 6X 5x 4/1 x 2 x 3 = 20

The Combinations in case of injury to four of the 8 embodiments are 6X 5x 4 x 3/1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 = 15

The Combinations in case of injury to five of the 8 embodiment�s 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 / 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 = 5

This Combinations in case of injury to six of the 5 embodiments are

6 X 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1

1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6       =1.

Thus the total number of combinations in case of injury to one or more the 6 embodiments are 6 + 15 + 20 + 15 + 6 + 1 = 63.

They are possible from 1st to the 4th stage.

As to the 5th stage, leaving mobiles, we have 31 as follows :

5/1  +  5x4/1x2  +  5x4x3/1x2x3  +  5x4x3x2/1x2x3x4    +  5x4x3x2x1/1x2x3x4x5     = 5 + 10 + 10 + 5 + 1 = 31.

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800. Indiscipline (Prtyanika), hindrance (to knowledge) (Antardya), contradicting (right knowledge), (Upaghata), displeasure for the (true knowledge), (Pradosha), concealing (one�s knowledge) (Sinhava). and also preventing (others from knowing the truth) (Atydsadana ) strongly bind the two obscuring i. e., (knowledge obscuring and Conation obscuring Karmas:)

Commentary.

In order that the student may know clearly what are the main �thought-activities which cause bondage of a particular Karma strongly, the author has taken up a discussion of the causes of bondage of . the main Karmas. Although every moment, seven or eight Classes of Karmas are bound in every soul, influenced by Passion, yet special causes produce an intensity in a particular Karma.

Knowledge-obscuring and Conation-obscuring Karmas are bound together through similar causes. which are discussed below in some detail.

(1) Indiscipline. not paying respect to the learned teachers. The true scripture and their teachings

(2) Causing hindrance to acquisition of knowledge by one self or others, through various vicious ways.

(3) Contradicting true knowledge, by wrong and faulty argument.

(4) Showing displeasure on hearing of the �true .way to libera�tion, or feeling jealous of one who has rightly shown the path.

(5) Concealing ones knowledge, with the object that no one may be able to learn thereby.

(6) Not allowing other learned men to express the truth.

These and other such causes produce Bondage of and Intensity in both the Obscuring Karmas.

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801. (A soul) endowed with compassion for all living beings, vowel, and engaged in meditation. possessed of forgive.. ness. charitable. and devoted to Preceptor. binds strongly the pleasure (feeling Karma); one reverse (to such noble thoughts) binds the other (Pain-feeling Karma.)

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802. One averse to Arhat. the Worshipful. Siddha. the Perfect. (their) images. austerities, scriptures, preceptor. religion. and group of saints. binds Right Earth obscuring Karma and thereby becomes a wanderer in mundane life for infinite time.

Commentary.

Jain Tirthankaras have preached that devotion to Arhat �and Siddha. worship of images, in commonplative peaceful altitude, adop�tion of austerities, careful reading of the Jaina Scriptures, respect to the Jaina Preceptor Saint, following Jaina Doctrine, and veneration of a party of Saints, help in the acquisition of and adherer�lC8 to the three gems-Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right conduct. One who shows disregard, apathy. or aversion to them is possessed of perverse knowledge and faith; and will bind Right faith obscuring Karma with strong fruition. which would result in interminable mundane wanderings.

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803. (One) agitated with strong passions, affected with deep Wrong-belief, afflicted with feelings of attachment and revul�sion, binds Beth kinds of Right conduct-preventing Karma (i. e., passions and minor passions), which injure the attribute of Right conduct.

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804. Verily a Wrong believer with many engagements (causing injury), devoid of peaceful nature, possessed of strong greed, having a vicious understanding, and entertaining evil thoughts, binds the hellish age (Karma).

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805. A soul which preaches wrong path. Destroys the (true) path, conceals intentions, is deceitful, foolishly inclined, an9 is Insincere, binds sub human age (Karma).

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806. A soul possessed of mild passion by nature, devoted to charily, without Brahamcharya- and control, and having medium kind of attributes, binds the human age (Karma).

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807. A right believing soul. binds celestial age on account of (right belief), Partial vow or Full vows; (a wrong believing soul also will bind celestial age, on account of partial or full vows) or foolish austerities or peaceful sufferings.

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808. One crooked in mind, speech, and body, or deceitful or puffed up with pride (of attainments), binds bad Body�-making (Karma); (while one) with the opposite (qualifications binds) good Body making (Karma).

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809. One devoted to the worshipful Arhat etc., having taste for the scriptures, being a seeker after the qualifications of reading and thinking, binds High family (Karma); and one having the opposite (qualifications) binds the other (Low family Karma).

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810. (One) engaged in such as hurting living beings, causing hindrance to worship of the conqueror. and in the path �of liberation, binds Obstructive (Karma), on account of which he does not obtain his desired (objects).

CHAPTER VII.

THOUGHT ACTIVITIES.

The chief attribute of the Soul which distinguishes it from non-�Soul is consciousness, an active state of knowledge. This knowledge, this consciousness, this thought activity, reaches its fullness when a soul attains absolute purity, gets rid of all contact with matter. Then its thought activity, its active condition of living, ,its Isness, consists in a quaternary of Infinities-Darshan, Jnana, Sukha, Veerya, and in its attribute of Soulness, Living Consciousness. Before attaining that sublime state, the thought activities are influenced by ever varying numerous causes, conditions and circumstances in the form of Karmas. These are dealt with in their innumerable conditions, permutations and combinations in this chapter.

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811. After bowing to Gommata Jinendra Chandra, I shall describe the appendix on thought-activities, which is a part of the contents of Gommatsara, and which comprises a description of proper topics.

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812. Such thought-activities as have arisen. owing to the subsidence, etc. (of Karmas), (and) by which souls are distinguished (from one another), have been said by the all seeing to be thought �attribute (Bhdvaguna).

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813.   The   thought activities (are five), Subsidential (Aupashamika), Destructive (Kshayika), Mixed, (Mishra or Kshayopashamika, destructive
Subsidential), Operative (Audayika), and Natural (Parinamika). (They) are sub-divided respectively, into two, nine. double of that (18), twenty-one and three.

Commentary.

Where there is no operation, but there is subsidence or dor�mant state of a particular Karma, the resulting thought-activity is called Subsidential. The Karma is not in action, but it is in exis�tence. It has subsided. To take an illustration. So long as chalk is held in suspension in its solution with water, the water is cloudy and opaque. The chalk has by its action, by its operation, affected the natural purity and transparency of water, and the water is called a solution. When the chalk settles down, the water regains its purity and transparency; but this condition is liable to be changed again, by a shaking. If however the water is poured or drained off into another vessel, or if it is evaporated and condensed into another vessel, it regains its purity and transparency permanently. Similarly if the Karma held in subsidence is destroyed, the resulting thought-activity of the soul is called Destructive thought-activity.

When there is non-existence of the totally destructive more-cules of the four Ghstiys Karmas, when the Mushiness Karma in existence is held in subsidence, and the partially-destructive molecules of the other Ghatiya. Karmas are in operation, the resulting thought. activity is called Mixed or Destructive-subsidental, Mi8hra. or Ksha�Y01Jaaahamika.

When a Karma is in operation or in effect, the thought activity is �Operative�. The natural thought-activity is that� which exists permanently with the soul in all conditions and circumstances.

It may well be noted that it is only Karmas of the Mohaniya group which subside, are held in subsidence, and with reference to which the term subsidental thought activity is used. Karmas of other groups are either destroyed or are operative. Destructive subsidence occurs only in respect of the four Desha-Ghatiya� the partially-des�tructive Karmas.

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814. Subsidential thought activity (results) from the subsi�dence of Karmas; Destructive thought activity, by their destruction.

Destructive Subsidential thought activity exists when there is (mani�festation of the) attributes of the soul, as well as the operation (of Karmas).

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815. When the attributes of a mundane soul are affected by the operation of Karmas. the thought activity is (called) Operative. The inherent thought-nature is (called) Natural. when it is not affected by any cause, (Subsidence, Destruction, Destruction-subsidence or Operation of Karmas).

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816. Subsidential thought activity (is of two kinds), Subsidential, Right-Belief. and (Subsidential) Right-Conduct. Similarly Destructive (is of 9 kinds), Destructive knowledge. Destructive conation, Right-belief. (Right) Conduct, and Charity etc.. (i. e., charity, acquisition, enjoyment, re-enjoyment, and power)..

Commentary.

Right belief and Right-conduct resulting from the subsidence of Right-belief-preventing and Right conduct-preventing Karmas of the Mohiniya (deluding) Karmas group are called Subsidential and the re�sulting thought-activity of the soul is also termed Subsidential and that resulting from their destruction is called Destructive-thought activity. The latter is of seven other description with reference to Conation, Knowledge, Charity, Acquisition, Enjoyment, Re-enjoyment and Power. This latter thought-activity begins at the eighth spiritual stage, and continues till liberation. Destructive-knowledge, preceded by Destructive conation is omniscience resulting from the de~tructiOI1 of know�ledge-obscuring Karma. Let us discuss in some detail the Charity and the other four Acquisitions of the Destructive kind. The charity by an omniscient is the spontaneous, effortless gift of peace and knowledge to all that lives. The Acquisition is the assimilation of infinitely auspicious Karmic molecules which keep up the physical body of the omniscient without any gross nourishment. The enjoyment is that of celestial-flower-showers, celestial-music and other miraculous paraphernalia in Samavasarana. The re-enjoyment is of the throne, the umbrella etc., provided by the celestials. Power is the infinite Might possessed by the Omniscient. These are called the five Labdhies (Acquisitions):����׵֍�, ��֭�, ��ֳ�, �����, ��ֳ����, ��ֵ��

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817. Destructive-Subsidential thought-activity (is of 18 kinds)�Right-knowledge of four (descriptions. sensitive, scriptural. visual. mental). three (kinds of) conation (ocular, non-ocular, visual), Wrong knowledge of three (descriptions, sensitive, scriptural, visual), (the group of) five, charity etc.. (as above), Destructive-Subsidential-right belief, (right) Conduct (affected) with attachment. and Partial control.

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818. Operative thought-activities are twenty-one, (having regard to), the (four) conditions of existence, (the three) sex inclinations, (the four) passions. wrong-belief. (the six) thought paints, non-liberated ness, non-control and ignorance.

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819. Natural thought-activities are Soulness. liberableness, and non-liberableness. These (53 are) the sub-divisions of the thought �activities. Note that these sub-divisions are many with reference to their combinations.

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820. We have fixed the possible. �thought-activities and their sub-divisions in the stages and soul quests. (There are) again (Divisions and) combinations (called) Prayeka, Para-samyoga and Samyoga.

Commentary.

The five thought-activities and their 53 sub-divisions may form combinations, Bhangas, in three ways, Pratyeka, Para-Samyoga and Sva-Sam yoga.

Separate consideration of the thought-activities and of the groups of sub-divisions. at a time, is called Pratyeka. Para-Sam yoga com�bination means the combination of a sub-division of one kind of thought with another of a different kind of thought at an instant e. g., the simultaneous existence of sub-divisions of operative and sub-sidential kinds. Sva-Samyoga combinations occur where sub-divisions of one kind of thought exist, along with other sub-divisions of the same thought, at an instant. e.g. one kind of operative thought existing along with another kind of operative thought.

Let us first discuss the five thought activities occurring in the 14 Spiritual stages.

The first three stages have only S, the Operative, the Destructive�subsidential and the Natural. The next 8 stages from the 4th to 11th have all the five thoughts. The 12th stage has only 4. leaving out the Subsidential. The 13th and 4th stages have 3, the Operative, the Destructive and the Natural. The liberated souls have 2, Destructive and Natural.

To discuss the existence of the 53 sub-divisions in the 14 Spiritual stages.

I. Wrong-belief Stage. All the 2 I Operative thought-activities, 10 out of the 18 Destructive sub-sidential, i. e., 3 kinds of Wrong knowledge, the two conations, ocular and non-ocular and five acquisi�tions, charity etc-, and the a kinds of. Natural thought-activities.

Thus 34 out of 53 may be found in this stage.

II. Downfall Stage. The 20 Operative ones,  viz., al1 except Wrong-belief. the 10 Destructive-Subsidential, as in the first stage, and the 2 Natural, liberableness and Soulness may exist here. Non�liberableness does not exist beyond the wrong belief stage. The total is 32.

III. Mixed Stage. 20 Operative, as in the 2nd, 12 Destructive�subsidential i. e., 3 kinds of knowledge, 3 conations and 5 acquisitions; and the two natural, as in thlf-2.nd. 3a in al1 are possible.

IV. Vowless Stage. 20 Operative as in the 2nd: 12. Destructive�subsidential, the above 11 and Right belief: Subsidential right-belief, Destructive right-belief and 2 natural as in the 2nd. 36 in all.

V. Partial Vow Stage. 14 Operative i.e., human and sub-human condition, four passions, 3 sex inclinations, S good thought paints, non-liberatedness, ignorance: 13 Destructive-Subsidential i. e., 12 as above and Partial-control; Subsidential right-belief, Destructive-right- belief and the 2 Natural. all in all.

VI & VII. Imperfect and Perfect Vow Stage. Of the a I enumerated in the 5th stage, deduct sub-human condition and Partials control, and add Mental knowledge and Destructive subsidential conduct. Thus 31 in all.

VIII & IX. New and advanced-thought-activity Stages. Of the a 31 in stage, V, deduct yellow and pink thought paint, Destructive subsidential right be)ief, and right-conduct; and add Subsidential conduct and Destructive conduct. Thus there are 29 in all.

X. Slightest delusion. Of the above 29, deduct 8 passions, anger, pride and deceit, and a sex-inclinations. Thus 28 in all.

XI. Subsided Delusion. Deduct greed and Destructive-conduct     from the above 28. Thus there are 21 in all.

XII. Delusion�s. From the above said 21, deduct Subsidential� belief and Subsidential conduct and add Destructive conduct. Thulium 20 in all are possible.

XIII. Vibrating Omniscient. There exist only Operative human condition, white-thought-paint and non-liberatedness; all the 9 Des�tructive and the 2 Natural. Thus there are 14.

XIV. Non-Vibrating Omniscient. Deduct white paint from the above 14, and only I a remain in this stage. In the liberated soul, there are the 4 Destructive, the quaternary of belief, knowledge, conation and power, and I natural i.e., soulness. There are only 5.

The Chart below shows Existence of thought-activities during 14 stages.

 Stages. Operative. Destructive Subsidential. Natural. Subsidential. Destructive. Total of Kinds. Total of their Subdivisions. I 21 10 3 0 0 3 34 II 20 10 2 0 0 3 32 III 20 11 2 0 0 3 33 IV 20 12 2 1 1 5 36 V 14 13 2 1 1 5 31 VI 13 14 2 1 1 5 31 VII 13 14 2 1 1 5 31 VIII 11 12 2 2 2 5 29 IX 11 12 2 2 2 5 29 X 5 12 2 2 2 5 23 XI 4 12 2 2 1 5 21 XII 4 12 2 0 2 4 20 XIII 3 0 2 0 9 3 14 XIV 2 0 2 0 9 3 13 Liberated soul. 0 0 0 0 4 2 5

�The above discussion is with reference to various souls at various times. The next question is how many thoughts may be found in a soul in one instant?

During each of the first three s� ages, the a main thought activities are, Operative, Mixed and Natural. As regards Divisions, there will be 3, when they occur separately. When two occur together, the combinations will be a again, viz, (I) Operative mixed (:) Operative� Natural (a) Mixed-Natural. There will be only one combination when the three exist simultaneously. These are called Para Samyoga combinations. The Sva-Samyoga combinations will be 3, Operative. operative, Mixed mixed, Natural-natural. There are thus 10 combinations, altogether, in each of the first a stages.

Stages from 4th to 7th, have all the 5 thought-activities. Applying the rule laid down in Varse 7119, the number of combina�tions when each occur separately is 5. When 2 occur at a time they will be 5x4 + 1X2=10. Deducting the impossible Subsidential-destructive� combination of two, only 9 are possible.

When 3 occur at a time, they will be 5x4x8.- IX2x8=- 10 (1) Subsidential-destructive operative (2) Subsidential-destructive-mixed (3) Subsidential destructive natural. cannot however coexist here. 7 only are therefore possible.

When 4 exist simultaneously, they will be 5xixax2 : Ix2xax4= 5. Subsidential destructive operative. mixed, Subsidential destructive. mixed-natural, Subsidential destructive-operative-natural, cannot exist        at one time. Only 2 all therefore possible.

The Sva-Samyoga combinations will be 8:

Mixed-mixed, Operative operative. Natural-natural  Subsidential� belief and Subsidential belief, or destructive belief and �destructive. belief, are identical, with each other, and hence 11th out of Calculation. do not exist together. In the four stages from 4th to 7th. thus, there are 5+9+7+2+3=26 combinations, possible.

During 4 stages of Subsidential ladder, from the 8th to 11th, all the 5 main thought-activities are present.

Their combinations will be 5 Pratyeka, and 5x4+1X2+5x4x8+ 1x2xE+5x4x3x2+lx2x3x4x5X3x2+lx2x3x4x5 = 10+10+5+1=26. Para-Samyoga  Combinations.

The, Sva Samyoga combinations will be 4, i. e., Operative-operative, Subsidential Subsidential, Mixed. mixed, Natural-natural., Destrue�tive-destrucive is not possible, because only the destructive. belief exists hare. and no ether Destructive thought is possible. Thus there are altogether 5+26+4 = 85 combinations in each of the stages of the 51 identical-ladder.

During 4 Destructive ladder of the 8th. 9th, 10th and 12th stages, only , lie 4 main thought-activities exist The Subsidential does not. Their combinations are 4 Pratyeka. and 4X8+ IX2+4X3X2+ IX+X3+ 4xi!x yl+lx2x3X4=6+4+1=11 Para Samyoga.

The Sava Samyoga combinations are 4 and the total 4+ 11+4= 19.

In the 18th and 14th stages operative. destructive and natural only exist. The Pratyeka Divisions lire 3. Para-Samyoga combina�tions are 3x2Xl + IX�2XS+11X2 + 1x2=4.Sva-Samyoga combinations are 3. Thus there are 8+4+3=10 combinations, altogether, in each of these stages.

Liberated soul have 2. the Destructive and the Natural. Pratyeka are 2. Para-Samyoga I, and Sava Samyoga are 2; altogether 5 com�binations. �

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821. There, are, respectively, possible three, five, four, three and two. main thoughts in three (stages) from wrong belief, in three quaternaries (i, e.. the 4 stages from the 4th, the 4 stages of the Subsidential ladder, and the 4 stages of the Destructive ladder), in the two (Vibratory and non, Vibratory) and in the liberated souls.

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822. The combinations of the main (thoughts in the respec�tive order of the stages as just above stated are) ten. twenty-six. thirty-five nineteen. ten and five. I shall (proceed to) speak of (the combinations of) the sub-thoughts) with reference to stages.

The Chart below shows the main thoughts and their combina�tions in 14 stages.

Stage                              Main Natures.                         Combinations.

### I   Operative, Mixed, Natural 10

II                                    Operative. Mixed. Natural.    10

III                                  Operative. Mixed, Natural.    10

IV                                  All five                                     26

V                                    All five.                                    26

VI                                  All five.                                    26

VII                                 All five.                                    26

VIII Subsidential          All five.                                   35

VIII Destructive            4 without Subsidential.           19

IX. Subsidential             All five.                                    35

IX Destructive               4 without subsidential.            19

X Subsidential               All five.                                    35

X Destructive                4 without subsidentail             19

XI Subsidential              All five.                                    35

XII ,Destructive            4 without subsidential.            19

XIII                                Operative, Destructive, Natural.10

XIV                                Operative, Destructive, Natural.10

Liberated.                      Destructive. Natural.              5

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823. Combinations of sub-(thoughts are) of two kinds. Stha�nagata, and Padagata. In the first. there is no Sav-Samyoga combi�nation. This is the rule.

Commentary.

The simultaneous grousing of several thoughts in a soul is called Sthana; and such group is called Sthanagata group. A group of those of one kind. is called Padagata.

Sub-thoughts are altogether 58. They have 2 kinds of combination. Sthanagata covers all the sub-thoughts which are possible in a soul in one instant. The other Padagata comprises sub-divisions of one kind found in a soul in one instant.

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824. Groups of Mixed (thoughts). (are) the in (each) of the two, Wrong belief (and Downfall stages). two in (each of) the three, (Mixed, Vowless and Partial Vow stages). and four in (each of) the seven. the Imperfect vow (etc..). Operative (thought has only) one group in all (the 14 stages).

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825. Obscuring (sub).tI�0ughts are five (in the first two). six (in the next three), and seven only (in the next seven stages); the five. charity etc.. (in all stages from 11st  to 12th). Destructive sub�sidential Right belief (is found) in the four, Vowless (etc., stages) Partial control in the Partial-vow (statge).

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826. Control with attachment (is found) in the Imperfect and in the other (Prefect vow). The maximum groups (of Mixed sub-thoughts) in Wrong belief etc., (12 stages. are thus composed of respectively 10,10.11,12.13.14,14.12,12,12,12 and 12 sub-thoughts). (There are three groups) in \each of) the two. Wrong-belief (and downfall stages, groups of 10. and of 9) leaving out Wrong. Visual knowledge, (and of 8) leaving out ocu lar conation also.

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827. (There are two groups) in each of the tl1ree Mixed (etc., stages) ; (the aforesaid group of 11) and there is the another group (of 9) leaving out the two visual (Knowledge and Conation) (the said group of 12 and after of 10 leaving the same two in the Vowless stage). (the said group of 13 and another of 11. leaving the same two in the Partial vow-stage) Further on (there are) other (groups in each of the 6th and 7th stages, that of 14, that of 13) without Mental knowledge, (of 12) without are Visual pair and (of 11) without both (Mental knowledge and Visual pair). Each of the stages 8 to 12 has 4 groups, those of 12. 11. 10 and 9 omitting the sub-thoughts just stated).

Commentary.

There are altogether 18 sub-thought activities of the Mixed main kind. The 8 kinds of wrong knowledge, and the 2 kinds of conation, ocular and non-ocular are found in the first two stages. 8 kinds of right knowledge, and 5 kinds of conation. ocular, non-ocular and visual are found in the Sro. 4th and 5th stages. 4 kinds of right knowledge and the above 8 conations are found in stages from 6th to 12th. Destructive subsidential right belief is found in the 4th to 7th stages. Partial control is in the partial-vow stage only. Control. with-attachment or Destructive-subsidential control exists in the 6th and 7th stages. There are no Mixed thoughts beyond the 12th.

To find out the total number of thoughts in each stage upto the 12th. We have maximum groups (Jyeshtha Sthana) of 10 thoughts in each of the first 2 stages consisting of S kinds of wrong knowledge, 2 conations and the five, charity etc. As a soul in these two stages may not possess wrong-visual knowledge or wrong-visual-knowledge and ocular conation, there will be 2 more groups, one of 9 and one of 8. Thus there are 3 groups of 10, 9 and 8. sub-thoughts in each of the first two stages.

The Mixed Ii1tage has a maximum group of 11, composed of S kinds of knowledge, 3 conations, and five charity etc. As visual knowledge and visual conation may not be found in all the souls, there will be another group of 9. Thus there are 2 groups of 11 and in the 3rd stage.

The Vowless stage has a maximum group of 12, composed of S kinds of knowledge, 8 Conations, 1 Destructive subsidential-right belief and 5 Charity etc. As one may not have visual knowledge and visual conation, there will be another group of only 10. There are thus 2 groups of 12 and 10 in the 4th. stage.

The Partial vow stage has a maximum group of 13, composed of the above said 12, and of partial control. As a soul may not have visual knowledge and visual conation, there will be another group of 11. Thus there are 2 groups of 13, II in the 5th stage.

The 6th and 7th stages have maximum group, of 14, composed of the aforesaid 18, and control with attachment. As a saint may not possess mental knowledge, or visual-conation and visual knowledge, or: all the three, there will be other groups of 13, 12 and 11 also.

Each 9f the stages from 8th to 12th has a maximum group of 12, composed of 4 kinds of knowledge, 3 conations and 5, charity etc. As a saint may not have mental knowledge, or visual knowledge and conation, or all the three, there will be other groups of 11, 10, and 9 also. Thus there are 4 groups in each of the stages from 8th to 12th.

The following table shows the number of groups of Mixed sub. thought activities during the first 12 stages.       Here K = Knowledge ; W. K = Wrong Knowledge; C = Conation ; O. C = Coular Conation; Ch = Charity etc., the five detailed in Verse 3 18; V. K = Visual Knowledge; V. C =Visual Conation, M. K. = Mental� Knowledge; V.2 = Visual Knowledge and Visual Conation; D; S = Destructive. Subsidential.

 Stages Groups. Their Description. I II III IV I 3 of 10, 9 & 8 3 W.K+2C+5Ch=10 10-VK=9 9-0.C=8 II � � � � III 2 OF 11 & 9 3 K +3C+5Ch=11 11-V.2=9 IV 2 of 12 & 10 3 K+3C+5Ch+D.S. belief=12 12-V.2=10 V 2 of 13 & 11 The above 12 + Partial Vow = 13 13-V.2=11 VI 4 of 14, 15, 12, & 11 The above 13 + Control with attachment =14 14-M.K.=13 14-V2=12 14-M.K.-V.2=11 VII 4 of 14,13,12 & 11 � � � � VIII 4 of 12, 13,10 & 9 4 K.+3C+5Ch=12 12-M.K.=11 12-V.2=10 12=M.K.-V2=9 IX � � � � � X � � � � � XI � � � � � XII � � � � �

There are 21 sub-thoughts of the consider how many of them can be found the 14 spiritual stages.

Stage 1. Eight sub thoughts are possible here, viz., one of the four conditions of existence, one of the three inclinations one of the foul passions, one of the six thought. paints, Wrong-belief, non-liberatedness.

ignorance and non. control.

II, III, IV. Here wrong-belief is not operative. Only 7 sub� thoughts are found.

V to IX. With sex-inclination. Only 6 sub-thoughts are possi�ble. Non control does not exist.

IX and X. In the 9th without sex-inclination and in the 10th there are 5 sub-thoughts. Sex-inclination has been got Over.

XI & XII. There are no passions. Only 4 thoughts are possible i. e, human condition, white thought. paint, non-liberatedness, igno�rance.

XII I. Ignorance is removed, only Sexist.

XIV. Thought paint is removed. Only 2 are possible, which are done away with, when liberatedness acquired.

Chart showing the number of Operative sub-thoughts in the 14 stages.

 Stages        I        II       III     IV      V       VI      VII    VIII   IX      with sex Thoughts.   8        7        7        7        6        6        6        6        6        6 Stages        IX      without sex X       XI      XII    XIII   XIV   Liberated Thoughts.   5                           5        4        4        3        2        0

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828. Possible (combinations of operative sub-thoughts are found) with reference to the four conditions of life, (respectively), twelve (in hellish), seventy-two (in sub-human), the same (in human), and forty-.eight (in celestial) by multiplying (the possible) inclinations, passions and thought-paints.

Commentary.

Hellish beings have only the common-sex. 4 passions, and 8 bad� thoughts-paints. There are IX4x3=1:2 combinations. Sub-humans and humans have all the S sexes, 4 passions, and 6 thought-paints. There are 8x4x6=72 combinations of these. The celestials have male and female sex, 4 passions, and 6 thought-paints (including the 8 bad ones, which are possible in non-developable condition of the three, residentials, peripatetic and stealers). There are 2x4x6=48 combinations of these.

12+72++72+48=204 combinations are thus possible in each of the Wrong-belief and Downfall stages.

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829. It should, however, be known that there are exceptions in the Mixed and Vow less stages, and in these listless. on account of good thought.-paints. Therefore only twenty-four combinations have been described there by (Mahavira) possessed of unassisted might.

Commentary.

During the 3rd and 4th stages also, as stated above, hellish beings have 12, sub-humans and humans, each, have 72 combinations. The celestials, however, have 2 sexes, x4 passions x3 good thought paints:-24 combinations only. The 3 Bad thought-paints do not operate there. There are 12+72+72+24=180 combinations,

During the 6th stage, sub-humans and humans have, each, 3 sex�inuclinations X4 passions X3 good thought paints=86 combinations. There are 86+86=72 combinations.

In the 6th and 7th stages, saints, have S sex-inclinations x4 passports x3 good thought paints=36 combinations.

In the 8th and 9th stage with sex-inclinations, saints have 3 sex� inclinations x4 passions x 1 white thought paint=12 combinations.

In the 9th stage without sex-inclination, we have 4 passions x l white thought paint=4 combinations.

In the 9th, without anger, Paints have S passions x l white thought-paint=3 combinations.

In the 9th, without anger and pride, there are 2 passions x I white thought paint=2 combinations.

In the 9th, without anger, pride and deceit; there is one passion anti one white thought paint and therefore one combination

In the 10th there is the slightest greed and white thought paint and one combination.

In each of the 11 th, 12th and 13th there is only one combination with reference to white thought paint.

In the 14th, human condition only is left in operation.

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830. Beings without ocular (conation) are always sub-human either with wrong (knowledge) or with Downfall belief. There. the combinations (are 12 obtained) by multiplying four passions and 3 bad thought-paints.

Commentary.

1-to-3-sensed subhumans do not possess the sense of sight. They are without ocular conation. They have common inclination nations x3 bad thought paints 12 combinations in each of the Wrong belief and Downfall stages.

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831. In Vowless Destructive Right Belief (there are respectively) four, sixteen, �Seventy-two. and twelve combinations (in the four conditions hellish etc. ) in Partial (Vow stage) peculiar to humans only, thirty-six such (combinations are) possible.

Commentary.

A person in the Vowless Destructive Right Belief stage, and in hellish condition, has, in the first hell, common inclination x4 passions x I grey thought-paint=4 possible combinations. In sub. human condition he has male inclination x four passion x four thought paints, (omitting black and blue)=16 combinations. hl human condition he has S sex. inclinations x4 passions x6 thought paints=72 combinations.

Males with any of the S sex inclinations can have Destructive right belief; so 3 inclinations are here counted.

In celestial condition he has male inclination x4 passions x3 good thought.paints=12 combinations. Thus, there are 4+ 16+ 72+ 12 =104 combinations in Vowless stage with Destructive right belief.

In Partial-vow-stage, only humans, possess Destructive-right. belief. They will have S sex. inclinations x4 passions x3 good paints =36 combinations.

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832. (There are) two groups of Natural thought activity in (a soul in) Wrong, belief, and only one in the other (stages). (One kind of) right belief; can not coexist with another kind of right belief; (neither) one (kind of) right conduct with (another kind of) right conduct.

Commentary.

There are 3 natural sub-thought. activities in the wrong belief stage, soul ness, liberableness and non liberableness. They can form 2 groups (I) soulness and liberableness (2) soulness And non-liberableness. In the other 13 stages there is only one group, soulness and liberableness. .

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833. To the (combinations of the) eight groups in the pair of Wrong belief (arid Downfall stages) and in the quaternary of Vowless (and the next 3 stages) of the Destructive (Right-belief) kind, Para-Samyoga combinations after being separately calculated should be added.

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834. In combinations with operative sub-thoughts, the groups are multiplied. Among the remaining thought (combinations), they are added.

Commentary.

From the data given in Verses 827 to 884. let us work out the possible number of combinations of Sub-thoughts in Spiritual stages.

1. In the first, the Wrong-belief stage, in all the four conditions of existence, in beings with ocular conation we have 1844 combina�tions. Let us work this out in detail. In this stage there are only S main thought-activities working-Mixed, Operative and Natural. Subsidential and Destructive do not exist here. As stated in Commentary to Verse 827, there are 2 groups of 10 and 9 sub-thoughts in the Mixed; and of 8 in the Operative. There are 2 groups in the Natural vide Verse 882. Let us place these facts in the tabular form as below:�

 Main Thoughts. Mixed. Operative. Natural. Number of sub-thoughts A B C D E in Groups. 10 9 8 2 2

The eight Operative sub thoughts combine in 204 groups in the four conditions of existence Verse 828 (p. 887.) C thoughts will form 9 combinations C, AC, BC, DC, EC+ACD, BCD, ACE, BCE. Combinations of A. B. D. E. will be 8, we have A. B, D. E. AD, AE, BD, BE. Multiplying 204 by 9 and adding 8, we have 204x9+8=1836 +8=1844 combinations.

In case of beings without ocular conation there will be only one group of 8 sub-thoughts of the Mixed description and therefore only 4 groups, of the three Thoughts as below:�

 Thoughts. Mixed. Operative. Natural. Number of sub-thoughts in Groups. F C D E 8 2 2

Commentary.

The combinations of Operative sub-thoughts here are only 12. vide Verse 830, p. 38S. The Combinations of Mixed F, with Cooperative. are FC, FCD, FCE. Multiplying 12 by 8 and adding FD, FE. F. we have 12x8+8=89 Combinations.

Adding these to 1844, we have 1844+39=1888 Combinations in all, in Wrong-belief stage.

Let us consider this again, in greater detail.

There are 12 combinations of Operative thoughts in hellish condition of existence, vide Verse 828. In wrong belief stage. 8 out of 21 thoughts will operate at a time, viz., lout of 4 conditions, I of the 8 sex inclinations, one of the 4 passions, I of the 8 bad thought. paints, Wrong-belief. Non liberation, ignorance, non control vide verse 827. Each of the above 12 possible combinations will be composed of 8 sub-thoughts at a time.

In hellish condition, common-sex-inclination, wrong. belief. Non liberation, non control, and ignorance are common to all beings. The variations are in respect of 4 passions, and the 3 bad thought-paints. Thus the possible combinations of the 8 sub-thoughts of the operative kind are   �               12

Combinations with group of 10 Mixed thoughts                             �               12

Combinations with group of 9 Mixed thoughts                     �               12

Combinations with the 2 groups of Natural thoughts           �               24

Combinations with the 2 groups of Mixed thoughts and

the 2 groups of Natural thoughts                        �               �                43

### The total combinations will be 12x9=            �        �              108

In the sub human condition the combinations will be

72x9=                                                �               �               �      648

In the human condition, the same vide, Verse 828       �               �      648

In celestial condition 48x9=             �               �               �      432

1836

Add the single 2 groups of mixed, 2 of Natural, and the 4

combined groups of Mixed and Natural in all                       �      8

And add the 89 combinations with reference to sub-humans

without ocular conation                   �               �               �      39

The total Combinations are             �               �               �      1836

II. Downfall Stage. The Mixed sub-thought groups of 9 and 10 exist here. Of the operative kind, wrong-belief does not exist. Of the natural there is only one group of soulness and Liberableness.

Thoughts,                      Mixed,        Operation.  Natural.

Groups of sub-thoughts          ...       AB              C                          D

10 9            7                           2

Combinations of the Operative C are 6 viz, , C, AC, BC, CD, ACO, BCD.

Multiplying 204 by 6 and adding the combinations, A, B, D, AD, BD, we have 204x6+5=1229 combinations. Add to these the new 26 combinations among beings without ocular conation, 12x2 (FC, FCD)+(F, FD)=24+2=26, and we have 1229+26=1255 combinations in the downfall stage.

III. Mixed Stage. There are 2 groups of; II and 9 of the Mixed, one group of 7 of  the Operative kind, and one only of the Natural description

Thoughts,                      Mixed,        Operation.  Natural.

Groups of sub-thoughts          ...       AB              C                          D

11 9            7                           2

Combinations of C are 6 viz., C, AC. BC,CD, ACD, BCD. Combinations of the 7 Operative thoughts Are 1 SO, vide Verse 829, p. 1387. Combinations among the others are 5, A, B, 0, AD, BD.

The total number of combinations is therefore 1�80x6+5= 1080 +5=1085.

IV. Vowless. Here we have Subsidential-right-belief, 2 groups of 12 and 10 sub-thoughts of the Mixed kind, the one group of 7 sub-thoughts of the Operative kind. and a group of liberable Natural. Destructive right-belief does not co-exist with Subsidential-right-belief. The combinations will therefore be considered separately,

Thoughts,            Mixed,        Operation.  Natural.      Subsidential.

Groups of sub-thoughts          ...       A B             C       D                E

12 10          7        2                 1

The combinations of C. will be 12, C, AC BC, CD, CE, ACD, BCD, ACE, BCE, CDE, ACDE, BCDE.

Combinations among the Operative-sub thoughts are l80, vide Verse 829. p. 337.

Combinations of the others will be II, A, B, 0, E, AD, AE, BD, BE, DE, ADE, BDE. The total combinations therefore are 180x 12+11=2160+11=2171�

As regards Destructive right-belief, if we sub-situate F for E, and Destructive for Subsidential in the above tabular statement the new Combinations will be 6 CF, ACF, BCF, CDF, ACDF, BCDF, with C, and 6 F, AF. BF, OF. ADF, and BDE among the rest.

Here the combination among the 7 thoughts of the Operative kind are 104, vide Verse 881, paste sag, The total combinations will be 104x6+6=624+6=630.

All the combinations in the Vowless stage are 2171+630=2801.

V. Partial Vow Stage. In case of Subsidential right-belief we have 2 groups of 13 and  11 of Mixed, one of 6 Operative, and one of Natural.

Thoughts,            Mixed,        Operation.  Natural.      Subsidential.

Groups of sub-thoughts          ...       A B             C       D                E

13 11          6        2                 1

As shown in the Vowless stage the combinations with the Operative group are 12, and those otherwise are 11. The combinations among the 6 operative thoughts are 72, vide Verse 829 and the aggregate are 72xIHI 1=864+11=875.

In case of Destructive right-belief new Combinations, again, are 6, and 6, as in the Destructive vowless stage.

The combinations among Operative thoughts are 36, vide Verse 831, and all combinations are 36X6+6=2 I 6+6=222.

Total combinations in Partial Vow stage are 875+222=1097

VI & VII.. Imperfect and Perfect Vow stages. The combinations in both these stages are the same. All the 5 thought-activities are present here in groups shown below:

Thoughts,            Mixed,        Operation.  Natural.      Subsid.    Destructive

Groups of            A B G H               C                D                E                 F

sub-thoughts        14  13  12  11       6                 2                 1                 1

Combinations with C are 30, C, AC, BC, CC, HC, DC, EC, FC, ACD, ACE, ACF, BCD, BCE, BCF, CCD, CCE,.CCF, HCD, HCE, HCF, CDE, CDF, ACDE, ACDF, BCDE, BCDF, CCDE, GCDE, CCDF, HCDE, HCDF.

Among the rest they are 29, A, B, C, H, D, E, F, AD. AE, BD, BE,BF,CD,CE,CF,HD,HE,HF,DE,DF.ADE,ADF. BDE,BDF CDE CDF HDE HDF. The combinations among the Operative thoughts are 86. vide verse 829, page 337. All combinations in the 6th stage are 3ex30+29=1080+29=1109.

�        7th    �                 �        1109.

VIII. New-Thought-Activity of destructive Ladder. Here 4 Thought-activities exist as below:-

Thoughts,            Mixed,        Operation.  Natural.      Destructive.

Groups of sub-thoughts          A  B  C  H            C       D                E

12  11  10  9                  6        2                 2

Calculated in the manner shown above there are 20 combinations with C, and 19 otherwise. As shown in verse 829, page 3S7. the combinations among Operative thoughts are 12. All the combinations are 12x20+19=240+19=259.

IX Destructive with Sex-inclinations. The combinations here will be the same as in the previous stage, viz., 12x20+19=259..

IX Destructive, without sex. The differenc�3 here is that the group of Operative thoughts will be of 5 instead of I. The Combinations among these 5 are 4, vide verse 1129. p. 337. All the combinations will be 4 x 20+19=80+19=99.

IX. Destructive without anger. Here the combinations of the 4 Operative thoughts will be 3 only. All the combinations will be 3x20+19=60+19=79

IX.-Destructive without anger and pride. Here the combinations are reduced to 2 vide verse 829. All the combinations will be 2X10+19= 40+19=59.

IX.-Destructive without anger, pride and deceit. Here the combin�ation is reduced to one vide verse 829. All the combinations will be 1x20+19=59.

X -Destructive. All the combinations here also will be 1x20+ 19=39.

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