Karma is a
word well-known not only in India, but beyond it, far and wide, in all
countries of the world, where Oriental Philosophy is studied or talked
It was only
a few years ago, that a talking picture, with an Indian back-ground was
prepared and exhibited in all English-speaking countries and in India,
and was called Karma.
villager and every citizen in India uses the word Karma in daily
parlance as signifying destiny, fate, happening, or event, for which he
does not find, or to which he fails to ascribe an immediate cause.
�My karma is
bad� is the cry of woe and despair, which is uttered when one is
overtaken by a sudden calamity, or is the victim of a fraud, perfidy or
swindle. With the majority of people Karma is the unknown factor in
life, quantity X.
systems of Indian Philosophy the word has been used with profusion.
Krishna is styled the Great Karma-Yogi, the superman of action.
According to Hindu tradition it was on the battlefield of Kurukshetra
that Lord Krishna preached the Philosophy of Action, and raised the
drooping spirits of Arjun, who hesitated to draw the bow against his
respected elders, and near and dear relations arrayed in battle against
Warrior, the incomparable Archer, the bravest of the brave, had at that
moment been overtaken by the weakness of inaction, indecision,
incapacity to act, a sort of mental stupor; and to drag him out from
that lethargic condition, the advice given was: �Do what is your duty in
the circumstances in which you are placed, and be indifferent to the
result.� Desire and expectation are sinful. No sin attaches to the more
commission of an act, which does not proceed form, or is not based on
desire, or expectation, or any ill-will; but is merely a performance of
duty, and is not a wanton or negligent act. This Discourse is called the
Bhagwat Geeta�Song Celestial. It consists of 700 verses and is divided
in to 18 Chapters.
In verse 3
of Chapter VIII, it is said that Karma is the emanation (\from the
eternal) that gives rise to ideas, which taking shape or form, come to
���ϖָ�� ���� �ָ����
���� ��־��곤��֍����� ����: ����� ���ז֟�:
simple and clear language, Karma is there said to be the resultant of
the vibrations proceeding from Eternal Life; which vibrations take shape
and have a duration; an existence for a definite period.
meant by Karma the acts enjoined by the sacred scriptures; and others
considered it as synonymous with a submission to the duties and
responsibilities of normal life.
In a modern
sense, a Karma-Yogi is a purposeful man or woman, who has settled views,
a house-holder practicing Yoga, while actively engaged in the world�s
turmoil, who calls himself unattached.
Philosophy, however, the word karma has quite a different and unique
significance. The starting principle of Jainism is that there is an
eternal beginningless union between soul and matter. This union though
without a beginning is not without an end. When once the union is
entirely broken, when once the soul is free from the slightest vestige
of a contract with matter, noting can bind it again. It is liberated.
of the soul which invites and enables mater of an exceptionally subtle
form of flow into it, as also the matter which actually does flow into
the soul, is called karma. The thought-activity is called Bhava-karma;
and the actual matter flowing into the Soul and binding it is called
Dravya-Karma. It is a substance. It is matter, in itself inert,
lifeless, like a pebble, but in combination with Jiva, Life, its potency
is immense, beyond calculation, beyond measure. It then keeps the Jiva
itself bound and fettered, a prisoner, dancing constantly at Karma�s
beck and gesture. At each step, the momentum for a new movement is
gained. At each embrace of matter, the delighted deluded soul throbs
and vibrates for a fresh embrace. Wily matter is ever ready to attack
the soul and to flow into it with its million insinuations, and to keep
alive and vigorous the bondage of the living by non-living. It is so
very fine, so very subtle, that it cannot be perceived, recognised,
discerned by any the most highly developed sense organ, or by the most
perfected, the highest magnifying microscope. It eluded all efforts of
the Chemist and the Physicist to calculate, measure, graph, photograph,
utilise, harness or control it. It is millions of times finer and
subtler than the waves of sound, light, or electricity, or the
electrons, protons, conceived by man. And yet this matter is ever and
anon surrounding us on all sides, and permeating through and through
every particle of our body and soul. There in no space where is not.
And it is perceivable, appreciable, knowable by the Omniscience; and its
workings, metamorphoses, make-ups and changes, are explained by
Achaaryas, who have heard the letter-less Voice of the Omniscient, and
who have transmitted the knowledge thus directly acquired from the
Omniscient to others through the pat milleniums, by word, and in
Karma is the
Cause, the first, the ultimate, the original Cause which keeps the
Universe going. All phenomena, all changes, all manifestations are due
to Karmic effects.
saints, the Masters of wisdom, have analyzed the workings of Karma in
the most minutest details. And what would be a marvel and a miracle to
the Modern Man is that they did so without the use of pen, pencil, or
paper, without any of the modern resources and appliances. Mind and
Memory were the only two instruments they used for researches into the
workings and inter-actions of Soul and Matter, with an accuracy and a
wealth of details which would command the admiration of the modern
Jaina Saints did all this wonderful research work without any selfish
motive, without expectation of praise or worship, or service in any
shape or kind whatsoever from their admirers, worshippers of devotees.
They thought deeply because it was a joy to think, they entered into
intricate and far-reaching arithmetical and algebraically calculations
because it was a pleasure to do so, because it was the natural,
effortless exercise of their
refined intelligence and consciousness. They spoke, they uttered, not
from desire but involuntarily, as an inherent, natural physical urge,
being stimulated thereto by the intense desire of the seekers after
In the learned and exhaustive introduction
to Gommatsara, Karma Kanda Part I, Mr. J. L. Jaini of sacred memory has
described the different kinds of substances which compose the Universe,
their attributes, modifications, the conditions in which the embodied
souls are found, the rules which regulate the com�bination of Soul and
Matter, Jiva and Karma, the Bondage, Inflow, Stoppage, and Dissolution
of Karmic connection with Soul; and the ways and means of obtaining
deliverance, Moksha, Liberation from Karmic contact.
Part II deals with the same subject in
details, more minute, more exhaustive and more extensive.
To give, however, a brief idea of the
subject-matter by way of introduction, a little recapitulation would be
It has already been stated that molecules
having the capa�city to adopt the Karmic form, take shape in what have
been termed 8 main classes, and 148 sub-classes of Karmas. This division
into 8 main and 148 sub-classes has been made for the sake of facility
of comprehension, and discussion of the subject. Speaking from an
absolute point of view, the classes and the sub-classes are innumerable
and even infinite. They vary, and no two are alike in every particular.
The divisions into classes and sub-classes are based on points of
Karmic matter never remains in an isolated
condition. As soon as it takes form, it combines with the physical or
fluid body, which stimulates it into activity. The stimulation into
activity is called Asrava, Inflow, and the combination Bandha, Bondage.
The Karmic molecules produce their effect after a certain period. This
duration is called Aabaadhaa, quiescence. The action or effect is called
Udaya, Operation. The period for which it continues to operate is called
Sthiti, duration, and this varies with the mildness or intensity of
passions. The natural siddance, falling, or shedding off, of Karmic
molecules in due course during the period of duration is called Nirjara,
shedding. This can also be effected earlier, and the operation and
duration period can be shortened, by austerities. As regards natural
shedding of Karmas, it commences immediately at the moment operation
begins and it is gradual, regular, and methodical by a fixed rule of
Arithmetical progression. The highest number of molecules shed off in
the first instant of duration, and the lowest number in the last
instant, while the number goes on decreasing by a common difference at
every instant. This has been illus�trated in the Chart Annexure A.
The operation may be tangible, the result
may be apparent, appreciable, felt, or it may not be so. That would
depend on circumstances ever varying in their nature. Every ordinary
mundane soul, every one of us, so to say, binds Karmic matter of all the
four passions-Anger, Pride, Deceit, and Greed-at every instant, while it
suffers from the action of only one of them, at an instant and the
others shed off in the manner shown in Annexure A, without producing any
result, without being felt.
For example, take the case of a person
engaged in pinots meditation, or in deep study of the Sacred philosophy.
The operation of evil and pain-producing Karmas will not affect him and
they will continue to shed off in due course. He has a pious desire, and
there will be the effect and bondage good Karmas only.
Again Karmas of one sub-class can be
transformed into those of another sub-class. Consider again the
just-above�-stated case of a person engaged in deep pious study. He will
not mind, or feel or be affected by the inclemencies of the weather, by
thirst, hunger, sleep, lassitude, etc., but will be enjoying the
pleasure of acquisition of knowledge. The pain� producing Karma will
thus be transformed into pleasure producing one.
Duration and effect or fruition of Karmas
can also be similarly increased or decreased. A person is thus the maker
and master of his destiny, he can make himself happy or miserable, he
can rise above circumstances, and can make a hell heaven and a heaven of
A Karma bound in one life may produce its
effect in the same life, in the next, or in a life thereafter.
In this second Part of Karma Kanda will be
found a rich detail of the various groups of sub-classes of each of the
eight main classes, which are bound by a soul, which operate, and which
simply remain in existence, at various spiritual stages. For example, a
soul in the first stage-wrong belief-binds 22 out of the 28 sub-classes
of Deluding Karma-wrong belief, 16 kinds of passion, one of the 3 sexes,
fear, disgust, and one from each of the two pairs of indulgence and
ennui, laughter and sorrow. Only 10 will be in operation-only one out of
the four kinds of each of the 4 passions can operate at one time, and
hence 12 kinds of passion fall out of calculation, and only 10 out of
the 22 which are bound can operate. Existence there is of a11 the 28.
The object of all this travail is to purify
the Soul, to evolve it to its inherent perfection, to remove all the
possible Karmic contamination�s which obstruct the full and complete
enjoyment and exercise of Omniscience, and Omnipotence. And how to
attain this end is the subject discussed in Karma Kanda, Parts and II.
The knowledge and analysis of the various
forms and work�ings of Karma is helpful in all stages of life, to the
child, the student, the householder, the man of business, the admiral,
the general, the warrior, the soldier, on land, water and air, the
teacher, the preceptor, the protector of the people, the king, the
politician, the administrator, the ascetic, the recluse, the saint, and
the super-saint. It is a general panacea. May it prove beneficial to the
June 13, 1937.
�֝�״ֵ� ��ָ���� ���ꔔ�� ן֔��ֵ��
������ ��ִ֝�� ll 398 ll
��ϝִ��ָ���� �ց���״� ס֔��֍��
���������֭���: ll 398 ll
398. After having made obeisance, with the
head, to the mighty Heroes, the Great Conquerors with unassisted might,
I shall describe the three Chulikas (appendices). Hear (this) with a
The opening verse contains, as is customary,
a very respectful obeisance to the Tirthankaras, the great Jinendras.
They have attained Infinite Power, the inherent attribute of the Pure
Perfect Soul. Human strength, might or power is limited. Soul-Power is
infinite; and does not stand in need of assistance of any weapon,
instrument, nourishment, stimulant, or encouragement. .
Obeisance is made in various ways. It may be
a salutation in words only. Such salutation may be accompanied by the
placing of the palms together, with fingers opened out, so as to form a
hollow between them: it may further be accompanied by a waving of the
hands so folded, or the folded hands may be placed against the forehead;
or the head may also be lowered as far as it will go. Again one may go
down on the ground sitting on the toes and the knees, and bend down the
body and bead so that the forehead may touch the ground, and the folded
hands. stretched out and beyond the head, be also touching the ground.
Again a worshipper may lie full flat on the ground face downwards, with
the folded hands, the forehead, and the other parts of the body touching
the ground. Here the salutation made while squatting on the ground, is
by bowing the head with folded hands touching the forehead.
The three Appendices, Chulikas are:�
Chulika, an appendix dealing with 9 questions;
(2) Pancha Bhagahara Chulika, an
appendix dealing with five kinds of divisors;
(3) Dasha Karana Chulika, an appendix
treating of the ten modes of Karmas.
؍� ��Ӭ��� �����֤��� ��㾾�� �֔��� �ִ��
����פ� ���� l
�ָ֯���ֵ�������� ��� �Ӹ��ָ���
���ӟָ���� ��ֵ�� ll 399 ll
���� �֭�� �����֟����� ���֔�֟�� �ִ�� פ��ֿ��״�
þָ֯���ֵ�������� ��� ָ���ָ�:
��ָ֭֟� ��ֵ�: ll 399 ll
399. Of what. (Karma Prakrities) is
cessation of Bondage caused before, after and simultaneously with
(cessa�tion of) operation 1 Of what (is Bondage caused) along with the
operation of themselves, of others, and of both; (of what is Bondage
caused) continuously, with intervals and in both ways.
The following are the nine questions
relating to the bondage of various Karma Prakrities, which are discussed
in this Appendix.
1. Of what Karma Prakrities is
cessation of Bondage caused before, 2. Of what after, and
3. Of what along with the cessation of
4. Of what Karma Prakrities is Bondage
caused along with operation of these Prakrities.
5. Of others, and
6. Of those and others,
7. Of what Karma Prakrities is Bondage
8. After interval,
9. In both ways.
ll 400 ll
��㾾�� ��� ll 401 ll ��㴴�� l
����֔֟������ָ����ֿ�������ֵ���֭��� �� �ֿ��֟�� l
�֟���֭�ִ�� ll 400 ll
�ִִ���ءֿ֟��� �������ֿ�ߟ��: �����
��� ll 401 ll ��㐴ִ�� l
400-401. (Cessation of Bondage of eight
Karma Pra�krities a. e.,) the celestial four (i. e., the celestial
condition. celestial migratory form, fluid body and limbs), the
assimilative two (a. e., the assimilative body and limbs), notoriety and
celestial age, (happens after) (the cessation of their opera�tion);
(bondage-cessation) of thirty-one. right-belief-delu�ding, radiant heat,
human migratory form, the immobile four (i. e., immobile, fine,
undevelopable, and common body), the fifteen passions (a. e., all the 16
passions except perfect conduct-preventing-greed). the fear pair (i. e.,
fear and dis�gust). the risible pair (risible and ennui), the four genus
(i.e. from one sensed to four-sensed beings) and masculine sex, (occurs)
simultaneously (with cessation of their operation); while (bondage
cessation) of the remaining eighty-one (i. e., all 120 which are taken
in bondage minus the above said 8 and 31, occurs) before their cessation
The first set of the three question is dealt
with here. With reference to eight Karma Prakrities which continue
binding even when their operation ceases, it should be noted that the
celestial four (i. e., celestial condition, celestial migratory form,
fluid body and fluid limbs) can not operate beyond the fourth
spiritua1stage of vowels right belief, but their bondage ceases at the
sixth part of the eighth spiritual stage of New-thought-activity. The
assimi�lative two operate only in the sixth stage of imperfect vows,
while their bondage ceases at the sixth part of the 8th stage of New�
thought-activity. Notoriety Karma ceases to operate at the end of the
fourth stage of vowels-right-belief. while its bondage may con�tinue
till the sixth stage of imperfect Vow & The celestial-age , Karma
operates only till the first four stages. while its bondage ceases at
the end of the seventh stage of perfect vows.
Thirty-one Karma Prakrities named above have
the same spiritual stage as regards their cessation of bondage and
operation. both. They are in bondage only in those stages where they are
in operation. For example, the Right- Belief-deluding Karma opera�tes
and is bound only in the first stage. For examples of other Pra�krities
see previous Chapters.
The remaining eighty-one Karma Prakrities
cease to bind in the spiritual stages preceding those of cessation of
their operation, for example the Knowledge-obscuring Karma of five kinds
is bound till the tenth stage of Slightest delusion, while it operates
tin the twelfth stage of Destroyed-delusion.
See pages 48 and 155 of Gommatsara Karma
Kanda, Volume VI, of the Sacred Books of the Jainas.
�����۾�ֵ֔������ָ�״�פ� ������ l
�ָ�������� �� ��Ӭ��� ״֔��� �����������
��֤�ߡ����� ll 402 ll
���֤����� ��֔։� ףָ���������ֻ����״֬��ֈ�����
������ֲ�Ӭ�� ������ �����ߤ��
��ֲֵ�Ӭ�֡����� ll 403 ll ��㴴�� l
����ָ���ֵ����� ��ߣ�� �����پ֍��֙�������ָ�״�ן�
�ָ�������� �� �֭���� ״֣��� ���ִ�õ�
���ן֭��: ll 402 ll
���������� ����֔֟���� �ãָ����
�����ֿ��ןֹ��ֲֵ֭���: ll 403 ll ��㐴ִ�� l
402-403. Bondage of (the eleven Prakrities i.
e.,) the celestial and human ages. Tirthankara, the fluid six (i. e.,
the fluid body and limbs, celestial and hellish conditions, and
celestial and hellish migratory forms) and the assimilative (body and
limbs). (occurs) only on operation of other (karma Prakrities); bondage
of (twenty-seven Karma Prakrities i. e..) wrong belief. the (fourteen)
destructive (Prakrities) of the slightest (delusion, the 10th spiritual
stage, i. e., the five knowledge-obscuring, the four conation-obscuring,
and the five obstructive), (the twelve) continuously operative (pra�krities
i. e.,) the electric two (i. e.. the electric and Karmic bodies). the
colour four (i. e., colour, smell, taste and touch), the pairs of steady
and beautiful (i. e., the steady and un�steady, the beautiful and ugly),
not-heavy-light and forma�tion (occurs) on their own operation. The
remaining eighty-�two (out of 120) are bound in both (ways i. e., on
their own operation or on operation of others).
The second set of the three questions is
answered in these two verses. The above-mentioned eleven Karma
Prakrities are never bound during the operation of such Prakrities, but
are bound when other Karma Prakrities are operative. For example, when a
soul is in celestial or hellish life, it will never bind celestial or
hellish; age, condition fluid body etc. A soul in human or sub-human
c�ondition of life may bind celestial age, condition etc. It means that
a celestial soul after death can not be born as celestial or hellish.
similarly a hellish soul can not just after death take birth in hellish
or celestial condition of life. It may take birth in any human or
sub-human life. Similarly Tirthankara Karma is bound from the 4th to the
8th spiritual stage of new-thought-activity; but it operates only in the
13th and 14th stages of the perfect soul.
The twenty-seven Karma Prakrities next
referred to are bound only when they are operative; for example,
wrong-belief is bound only in the first stage of wrong belief, where it
is operative also. The fourteen destructive Karmas which are operative
till the 12th stage are bound only tin the 10th stage of a1ightest
delusion. It should be noted that these twenty-seven Karma Prakrities
may re�main operative even when they are not bound; but their bondage
will occur only when they are operative. Out of 120 Karma Prakrities,
which are taken in bondage, subtract eleven and twenty-seven, and the
remaining eighty-two may bind when similar Prakrities are in operation
or otherwise- For example, the human age Karma is bound when it is
operative or otherwise. A celestial, hellish or a sub-human soul can
bind the human age Karma. Similarly the Physical-body Karma can be bound
(when it is operative) in human or sub-human life or (when it is not
operative) hi celestial or hellish life. Feel�ing-Karma is of two kinds,
Pleasure-feeling and pain-feeling. One of the two is operative at a
time, but the bondage of any of the two can occur during operation of
any of the two. A man while enjoying operation of pleasure-feeling
Karma, may bind either pain-feeling or pleasure-feeling Karma according
to the nature of his thought �activity.
������ �� ן֟�����ָ����� םָ���ָ����� l
ll 404 ll
�����ִ֝�֤�־֤����� ��־ָ������ ������֤����ל�۟��
���ϸ���������� ����� ���ӟָ���� ����ן�
��������� ll 405 ll ��㴴�� l
�֯�֔֟���ظ��֟�� ������ ����ׯ� �� ��ߣ��˸���ָ�ֵ����
ll 404 ll
���ϸ�ן�:������ �����: ��֭�ָ����
�־�ۭ�� �֟���áֿ֟�� ll 405 ll ��㐴ִ�� l
404-405. The forty-seven (Karma Prakrities
which are in operation) continuously (i.e., five knowledge-obscuring,
nine conation-obscuring, five destructive, wrong belief, sixteen
passions, fear and disgust, electric and karmic bodies, not-heavy-light,
self-destructive, formation, colour, smell, taste and touch), as well as
Tirthankara, assimilative (body and limbs), (four), ages, (all these
fifty four are bound) con�tinuously (Nirantara). The hellish two (i. e.,
the hellish condition and migratory form), four genus (i. e, from one
�sensed to four-sensed), five (kinds of) bones (i.e., all the six except
the first adamantine-nerve-joint--and bones), five figures (i. e., all
the six except the first symmetrical), awkward movement, the
two-hot-light and cold-light), the ten, immo�bile (fine body,
undevelopable, common body, unsteady, ugly, unprepossessing, harsh
voice, non-impressive and notoriety) pain (feeling), common and female
(sexes), ennui, sorrow, these thirty-four are (bound) with intervals (i.
The third set of 3 questions is dealt with
here. Out of fifty-�four Karma Prakrities which bind continuously the
first forty-seven go on binding continuously till the stage of their
cessation of bondage; while out of the remaining seven, Tirthankara and
assimilative two are bound continuously only in the stages where their
bondage is possible, and age Karma is bound continuously only during one
Antar-Muhurta at its proper time of bondage. The thirty-four Karma
Prakrities are not bound continuously. They are bound with intervals.
For example, hellish condition is bound sometimes. but not always.
Similarly one-sensed or two-sensed.
�ָ���֤�����ִ֔ֈ��� ���ה�ؤ��� ���֤����
��֤�� ll 406 ll
���ӟָ�� ����ן� l
�ֽ�� ���� ��כ����� םָ���ָ�� ����ן�
�֟������ ll 407 ll ��㴴�� l
�����ָ�ןֵ�Ԑ�����֍������پ֍�������Ͽ�ß�� �֕�ϴ�� l
�ָ���֟���ִ֔֟���á�� �֘���ۭ����� ���֤���
��ִ֟�� ll 406 ll
��֭�ָ�� �־�ۭ�� l
���� ����: ���ן֖֯� �ָ���ָ��
�־�ۭ�� ���ءֿ֟�� ll 407 ll ��㐴ִ�� l
406-407. (The remaining) thirty-two (out of
one �hundred and twenty Karma Prakrities i. e.,) the pairs of celestial,
Human, sub-human, physical and fluid (i. e., celes�tial condition and
mi2ratory form, human condition and mig- ratory form, sub-human
condition and migratory form, physi�cal body and limbs. fluid body and
limbs), graceful-move�ment, adamantine (nerves joints and-bones), the
two, destruc�tive (and respiration), symmetrical (figure), five seemed,
the ten mobile, (gross, developable, individual, steady, beautiful,
amiable, sweet-voice, impressive and fame), pleasure (feel�ing),
risible, indulgence, masculine (sex), and the two family (high and low),
are (bound) with intervals (i. e., Santara) in presence of (their)
opposites; but are (bound) continuously (i. e., Nirantara) on
destruction of (their) opposites.
The word �opposite� as qualifying Prakriti
signifies The other� Prakriti or Prakrities of the group. The thirty-two
Karma Prakri�ti seamed in the verses are bound in both ways, with and
without interval. When their opposite Prakrities are not destroyed, they
woe did with intervals, but when they are extinct. they are bound
continuously till the stage of their bondage-cessation. For example when
human, sub-human or hellish condition is bound. celestial con�dition
will not be bound. In the spiritual stages where bonds as of all the
four conditions of life is possible. celestial condition will be bound
only with interval; but in the stage where no other condi�tions of life
can be bound, the celestial condition only will go on binding
continuously. Such is the case with the other thirty-one Karma
In wrong belief stage, celestial condition
and migratory form as well as their opposites, the other three forms and
conditions can be bound; viz.. any of the four conditions and migratory
forms can be bound. In the downfall stage, only two opposites.
sub-human� and human conditions and migratory forms, as well as
celestial condition and form are bound. In the mixed and vowless-right-belief
stages, celestial condition and migratory form, and one opposite vis the
human condition and migratory form are bound. From the fifth stage of
partial-vow to the sixth part of the 8th stage of new� thought-activity,
in humans of work-region, and in humans and sub-humans of
enjoyment-region. celestial condition and forms only without any
opposites are continuously bound. Human condition and migratory forms
are bound continuously, without any opposites in the heavens above, the
12th i.e., from the 13th till Sarvartha Siddhi. the last heaven.
Sub-human condition and migratory form. and low �family are continuously
bound without any-opposites in the seventh hell. and in the conditions
of the fire-bodied and air-bodied souls.
Physical body and limbs are bound
continuously without any opposites in hellish and celestial lives.
Fluid-body and limbs are continuously bound without their opposites; in
hipline and sub�human right-believers, as well as enjoyment regions.
Graceful movement is bound continuously. without its opposite. from the
mixed stage to the sixth part of the 8th stage of New-thought activity.
Adamantine nerves-joints-and-limbs is bound continuously without its
opposite in the 3rd and 4th spiritual stages- Destruc�tive and
respiration do not bind along with undevelopable; they are bound
continuously from the 2nd stage 6th part of the 8th stage. Symmetrical
figure is continuously bound from the 3rd stage to 6th part
of the 8th stage. Five-sensed genus, mobile, gross, developable,
individual,--these five are continuously bound from the downfall-stage
to the 6th part of the 8th stage.
Steady and beautiful are continuously bound
without their opposites from 7th stage of perfect-vows� to the 6th part
of 8th stage. Fame-Karma is continually bound from 7th to 10
stage. Amiable. sweet-voice and impressive are bound without their
opposites from the 3rd stage to 6th part of the 9th stage. Pleasure�
feeling Karma is bound with interval till 6th stage upto which, its
opposite. the pain-feeling Karma is also bound; but it is bound con�
tenuously without its opposite from 7th stage to the 13th stage� of
Vibrating Omniscient. Risible, and indulgence are bound without
interval. till the 6th stage upto which their opposites sorrow and ennui
are also bound. but from 7th they are continuously bound till the end of
the 8th stage. Masculine sex has its opposites, the common. and female
sexes. in the 1st stage; and only female sex in the 2nd
stage; and thereafter till the sixth part of
the 9th stage, it is bound continually without any opposite. High family
is continually bound from 3rd stage to 10th stage of slightest delusion.
Speaking in plain language, on acquiring
Right-Belief a person is assured. in the next birth. of a human
condition of existence, with masculine sex, symmetrical figure. and in a
high family. A right believer has thus no fear of death even, because he
knows that death to him only means a change of the present physical body
for a better one.
The acquisition of Right-Belief, a firm and
unshakable convic�tion in the reality of things, in the real nature of
Life, and non�-Life. puts an end to all pain and misery and makes life
Time which hangs heavy on an idle fellow,
passes on in happy reverie with an ascetic. He is above want, distress,
pain, disappoint�ment, worry or vexation. His is a life of continuous
Bliss, showering knowledge. happiness on all beings. What seems
mortification of the body to others. is to. him exquisite enjoyment of
inherent direct knowledge and power beyond common measure. Every moment
he is progressing in spiritual advance, is destroying the past cumulated
Karmas until he transcends all, and is eternally Identified. with
Omniscience and Omnipotence.
The following Table will make the contents
of the above two verse. easy of comprehension :��
Table 1, of Continuous Bondage �Without the
Name of Karma.
Stages where they are continuously bound
without any opposite.
Celestial Condition and form.
5th to 6th part of 8th, and also in
Human Condition and form.
Any stage from 13th heaven to Sarvartha
Sob-human condition and form, and
All stages in 7th hell, and in
firebodied and air
All stages In hellish and celestial
All stages in human and Sub-human right
believer and in the enjoyment region.
3rd stage to 6th part of 8th stage.
3rd and 4th stages.
Destructive, and respiration.
2nd stage to 6th
part of 8th stage.
3rd stage to 6th part of 8th stage.
Five-sensed, mobile, gross Developable,
2ad stage to 6th part of 8th stage.
Steady and beautiful.
7th stage to the 6th part of the 8th
7th to l0th stage.
Amiable, sweet-voice, impressive.
3rd stage to 6th part of 8th stage.
7th to 18th stage.
Risible and indulgene.
7th stage to the 6th part of the 8th
3rd stage to 6th part of 9th stage.
3rd to 10th stage.
Karma Prakrities are thus continuously
bound without oppsites.
�ָ����״֓�Ӥ��� �������� ֝�� ���םִ�ֻ��� ��֤��� l
���� ���ϳֵ֝��פ�� �ִ�ֻ���������� �����
��־ִֻ�� ll 408 ll
�֡� �ָ����״֭֓���� �֣֭��� ֭��
���ִ�Ի��� ��֟�: l
��ִִֻ֯�� ll 408 ll
408. May that Abhayanandi (Acbarya), the
ocean of pure scriptural-knowledge. from whom worthy Nemi-chandra has
risen pure, and without churning�, remove the dirt of bad Karmas.
There is a tradition current that the moon
along with other things came out of the churning of the ocean. The
author Nemi Chandra Sidhant Chakravarti here pays homage to his
preceptor Acharya Abhayanandi, whom he likens to the ocean, because his
knowledge was vast and deep. The preceptor, however, had to undergo no
painful operation like churning in transmitting scriptural knowledge to
this disciple, and with knowledge bestowed, and acquired, without
trouble, the pupil shone forth shedding the cool and comforting light of
knowledge, far and wide, like the moon. but pure and without the black
spots which mar the purity of the moon. The excellence of both the pupil
and the preceptor is here extolled.
�����֝�ֳ֕���֤��� ���Ϭ�֯־֢��� ������
�� �־���� �� l
��Ӎ���פ� ������ ������ �����ִ־�����
��߾�֝�� ll 409 ll
�����֭�֬��֟� ���Ϭ�:��Ͼ���: �����֓�
��Ӎ��ִ�ן� ���: ����� �����ִ־ֿ���
��߾�֭�ִ�� ll 409 ll
409. There are five kinds of divisions i.
e., Bhagahara) by which Karmas with the help of to bought-activities of
souls are transferred (into other Karmas):�
(1) Udvelad, (2) Vidhyata, (3) Adhah
Pravritta, (4) Guna
Samkramana, (5) Sarva Sankramana.
��Ӭ�� ��Ӎ��״֕��פ� �����Ӭ�� ��۟�� ���ֵ֛֯�ߝ��
����֝֓���ִ������ ����ֈ�ֈ���� ��
��Ӎ��֝�� ll 410 ll
�֭��� ��Ӎ��ִ�ן� ���� �֭��� ����ß� ���֯�ύ����߭�ִ��
����ԭ֓���ִ������ ����ֵ�㿓֟���� ��
��Ӎ���ִ֝�� ll 410 ll
410. The bound up (Karmas) are transferred;
not those which are not bound. There is no transference among the root
(eight) Karma-classes (among themselves). (Even among the sub-classes of
8 Karmas), (there is) no (transference) between
Righ1-belief.deluding-Karma and Right conduct-delu�ding Karma; (and
also) between four (kinds of) age Karma (themselves).
Matter of one kind of Karma already bound up
with a soul can be transferred to another kind of Karma. This process is
called Sankramaga or transference. Matter of one main class however
cannot be transferred to that of another main class, e. g., Karmic
matter of Knowledge-obscuring-Karma cannot be transferred to
Conation-obscuring or to any of the other six classes. There is
transference of matter among sub. classes of a main class. For example,
matter of Sensitive-knowledge-obscuring Karma can be transferred to
Spiritual- Knowledge-obscuring Karma, or to any other sub-class of that
Feeling Karma is of two kinds,
pleasure-feeling and pain-feeling. There can be transferrence of matter
between these two only. As an exception to this role it is said that
matter of Right-belief �deluding-Karma can not be transferred to that of
Right-conduct-deluding Karma, or vice versa, and matter of any of
the fOl1r Age� Karmas, can nut be transferred to that of another
�ִ��� ״֓��� ״����� ���ֽ�֝�۴��
���� ��Ӎ���פ� l
����֝�״����� םִֵ�� ����֝�ןֵ���Ӎ�����
��۟�� ll 411 ll
�ִ��� ״֣��� ״���� þ���ã�֭�� ����
����ß� ll 411 ll
411. Clouded-right-belief, Wrong-belief, and
Mixed -right and-wrong-belief (three sub-classes of right
belief-deluding Karma) have DO transference (among themselves) in their
own respective spiritual stages. It is also a rule that transferrence of
these three sub-classes fright-belief-deluding-Karma does not occur in
downfall and mixed (the second and third) spiritu~1 stages.
There is no transferrence of three
sub-classes of Right-belief�-deluding-Karma among themselves in downfall
and mixed spiritual stages. Again matter of Wrong-belief-Karma will not
be subject to transfer in the first spiritoa1stage of Wrong-belief. It
will only be subject to transfer in the four stages from fourth to
seventh. Similarly in the above four stages matter of Mixed-right and
wrong belief-Karma can be transferred into another. As Wrong-belief�
spiritual stage is not the operative stage of. this mixed Karma, matter
of this mixed sob-class may in the first stage also, be subject to
transfer. There are four stages for operation of Clouded� right-belief,
i. e., 4th 1;0 7th and as transferrence cannot occur in the stages of
downfall and mixed, it is evident that its transferrence is possible in
the first stage of Wrong-belief only.
״֓��� ��۴������֝�� ���Ϭ�֯־֢��� ��������ӟ���ע�
�����֝�� ��� �֢��� �������֍������۴��
םִֵ��� ll 412 ll
״֣��� �ִ��ې�ָ��������:��Ͼ���: ���������ԭ���ן�
�,�֭�� ��� �֟��� ��ָ��֍��� �ן� ִֵ���
412. As a rule, during (the stage of) wrong
belief, (transferrence) of clouded right-belief and mixed-right-and
�wrong-belief (Karmic matter goes on) till one Antaramuhurta by (the
division called) Adhab-pravritta; afterwards till last section (of time)
but one (dvi-charama Kanda), (transferrence occurs by (the division of)
Transferrence occurring in one instant of time is called
that in a group of many instants
�����ֵ֛֝֯�ߝ�� ����� ��� �����۴�� ��������
������ ����۴�� ������ �־��� �� ��
����פ� ��Ӎ��֝�� ll 413 ll
�����֭֯�ύ����߭��� ����� ��� �ָ���� �������
�ָ���� ��ֻ��� ����: ��Ӿ�� �� �� �־�ן�
��Ӎ���ִ֝�� ll 413 ll
413. Necessarily, there is transference of
(all) the Karmas referring to Udvelana (division) in the last section
(of time i. e., K1indak) by the division called Gunna (Samba. mana); but
during the last part of that very action of time, (there is
transferrence) by Sarva (Sankramana division).
There are five kinds of transferrence. which
take place accord�ing to five kind of divisions.
(1) Transferrence of matter of one Karma
to another without the thought. activity of three kinds called Adhah.
Apurva and Anivritti (see Page 44, Gommatsara Jiva Kanda volume V, of
the Sacred Books of the Jainas) is called transferrence by division of
(2) That transferrence which Occurs in a
soul with slight purity of thought, after it has passed into the
sections of time, (Kandakas) where duration and fruition of Karmas are
decreased, or after such thought activities as Guna Shreni etc., by the
help of division called Vidhyata, is Vidhyata Sankramana.
(3) Transferrence of matter of a Karma
into that of others during their bondage, by division of Adhah Pravritta.
is called Adhah Pravritta Sankramana.
(4) Transferrence of Karmic matter by
constant innume�rable-fold mul triplication, every instant, by division
Guna is called Guna-Sankramana.
(5) Transferrence of all Karmic matter
into another during the last part (Phali) of the last section (Kanda) of
time is called Sarva-Sankramana.
Clouded-right-belief, and Mixed-belief
sub-classes are included into the sub-classes� of Udvelana ; therefore
their Guna-Sankramana takes place in the last section of time, and their
Sarva Sankramana occurs during the last part of that very section.
�����ָ���� �� ���� ן������ָ��
�����֟���� ll 414 ll
��֬�ָ���� �����: ןֵ�Ԑ���֤���
�֭֟־����: ll 414 ll
414. (There is operation of eleven
sub-classes of body making-Karma during sub-human life only, i. e.,) of
the two sub-human (condition and migratory form), four genus (from
one-sensed to four-sensed), hot-light, cold light, immobile, fine �body,
and common. They are known as sub-human-eleven or Triyagekadasha.
The eleven sub classes mentioned above come
into operation. as a rule. in sub-human condition only. Therefore they
are called Tiryagekadasha.
�������ָ������� �ִ��� ״����� ����֤���֝�ָ��֓ֈ����
����� �֝�����ִ���� ������ ����껻֝�� �ֵ֛��
ll 415 ll
�������ָ������ ��:��� ״֡��
����� �֭����������: �ֵ������ �����֭��
��ύ���ֵ� : ll 415 ll
415. The two Assimilative (body and limbs),
Clouded� right-belief, Mixed-right.-and-wrong-belief, the two Celestial
(condition and migratory form). the four hellish (condition migratory
form, fluid body. and limbs) high familiar, the two human (condition and
migratory form),-these thirteen are called Udvelana sub-classes.
��Ӭ�� ���Ϭ�֯־֢��� ֕����֤�� �ִ֢���ע�
��� ���ϲ�Ӭ�� l
����� ������ ���ϲ�Ӭ�� �ֵ֛�ߝ�� ���ϯ���֟��֝��
ll 416 ll
�֭֬� ���Ϭ�:��Ͼ����� ֬��֟�: �ִ֯֟�
�ן� ��� ���ϲ֭��� l
����� ����: ���ϲ֭֬�� ��ύ����߭�ִ֯�Ͽ�ß�֭�ִ��
ll 416 ll
Adhah Pravritta (kind of transferrence occurs) during the bondage (time
of Karmas); Vidhyata (kind of transferrence); during non-bondage (of
Karmas) only till the seventh (stage of perfect vows); afterwards (till
the eleventh stage of sub-sided delusion) there is Gunna (Sankramana.
kind of transferrence) of had sub-classes during (their) non�-bondage