Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life
INTRODUCTION
SYNOPTIC PHILOSOPHY
APPROACH TO REALITY
THE JAINA THEORY OF THE SOUL
CRITIQUE OF KNOWLEDGE
  THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA IN JAINA PHILOSOPHY
 

THE PATHWAY TO PERFECTION

 

IN THIS OUR LIFE

  MEN OR GODS
 

GENERAL INDEX


Chapter-3 : THE JAINA THEORY OF THE SOUL

 

Comparative psychology points out that there have been various stages in the development of animal life. The first simple animals, the protozoa. Of one sense. In fact, till we reach the insect species we find that the chemical sense predominates positive negative and food reactions are mainly due to the chemical sense. As we go up the animal scale we find sensory discrimination in qualitative distinctions even the othersenses get discriminated ad developed as we proceeded in the development of animal life. Similarly the distinction between the Jivas as paryapta and aparyapta has great psychological significance . Gommatasara thus illustrates the paryapta developed, �as the thing like the room jars, and clothes are full or empty so the Jivas should be understood be complete or incomplete.46  Jiva becomes parayapta with the absorption of Karmic matter for building up its body sense, respiration and manes. One sensed organisms plate with the possession of food, drink body sense and repiration. The possession of these attributes makes the first four- sensed organisms parayapta or complete For five sensed organisms all the six are necessary in the absence of these the Jivas are incomplete Comparative psychology has shown that sensory discrimination has been a gradual process. Miss washburn points out that ability to distinguish between the different sensory experiences depends on several factors, like the nature of the sense organs and the ability to make aired reaction movements .47  On the basis of these investigations, three different classes of senses, like the chemical semse hearing and sight, have been mentioned the chemical sense is manifested in the combined senses of taste and touch. As sensory discrimination becomes more complex the mental life of animal becomes more developed and pronounced.

IV.     these characteristics of the soul are mentioned from the practical point of view Defilement of the soul takes place who the Karma pours into the soul this is called asrava. The soul then begins to experience mundane and emotional experiences like the passions. The karama which comes into contact is retained . the soul is eternally infected with matter every moment it is getting new matter. In the normal course of things it has no end but the deliverance of the soul from the wheel  of samsara  is possible by voluntary means. By the prose of samvara the soul can stop the influx of karama; by nirjara it an eliminate the Karana already glued to the soul. The al obstacles are removed and the soul becomes pure and perfect, free from the wheel of samsara. Being free , with its upward motion the Jiva attains the liberation or moksa. In the last lines of the Fommatasara: Jivakanda, it is said that the liberated sol remains pure and  free.

Pureand perfect souls live eternal bliss. But they do not lose their identity as the Vedatin sold emphasize. In the Jaina Theory of the soul eight Kahanada of the Chandogyopanisad, it is said that when a man departs his speech is mereged in mind, his mind I breath, his breath in fire, which I the highest being is sat. Now, that which is the subtle essece has its self. It is the self, � and thou Oh secetaket, art that.� In the eleventh Khanada also, we read that when the body withers and dies ad the living self leaves it, the livig self dies not.48 Jacobi says that here we come nearer to the cocept of the soul. It differes from the Jaina concept in that the soul here does not possess a permanent personality, for in mukti the jiva is mereged I Brahama and its individuality is lost. For the Jaina, Mc Taggart�s analogy of the �colege of sellves� would appear to be apter, although what type of spiritual unity there is is Moksa, Jainism cannot say. Mc Taggart seeks of the unity of the absoulte as that of a society. All the seles are percect, and � if an oppnent should remind me� he writes, �of the notorious imperfections of all the lives of all of us, I should point out that every self is in reality eternal and that its true qualities are oly seen in so far as it considered as eternal� 49 Sub specie eternitatis it is progressing towards perfection as yet unattained. The never �ceasing struggle of the soul is an important tenet in Jainism. The universe is not, theu, an amusing pantomime of infallible maruouettes, but a fight for perfection, in which �something is eternally gained for the universe by the success�.  The Jaina lutlook is melioristic.