Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life








Still, the impasse that Logical Positivism has reached is unfortunate, because:

i)                  The doctrine of Logical Positivism has led to dogmatism and intolerance; so that metaphysical question are dismissed as unworthy of attention of sensible men. Theories like the veridical principle, the emotive theory of ethics and logical construction are simply announced as if they formed a part of revelation denied to other philosophers except Hume.

ii)                Sense experience, as the criterion of truth, has led to solipsism, as it did in the case f the sophists and Hume. Sense experience is private and cannot be communicated.  The more radical among them, like Carnap and Neurath, were hence led to physicalism, which is nearer to behaviors in psychology.

iii)             For logical positivists, as for other empiricists, sense experience is the only criterion knowledge. Modern psychical Research, n the other hand, affirms the possibility of extra- sensory experiences. In addition there are certain other experienced, like the speculation, moral and aesthetic.

The problem of supersensuous emixperience is not new to us in India. All schools of Indian philosophy, except the carvakas and Mimamsakas, believe in it. Supersensuous experience transcends the categories of time, space ad causality; � Our sense organs are narrowly specialised to serve biological and practical ends. In the face of these facts, it would be narrow and fanatical to insist on sensory experience and the veification principle as the only criteria of knowledge. Like the men chained against the walls of the cave in The Republic. The empiricists refuse to see beyond what they would like to affirm.

iv)              Moreover, for the Logical Positivists the veification principle has been a dogma and a commandment. But the principle of veification is not a self- evident statement, nor is it capable philosophy is itself based on a metaphysic.  Certain presuppositions about the universe.

v)                Nevertheless, the effects of Logical Positivism have been serious. It has engendered a nagative climate of opinion, and was likely to shatter the old beliefs in the social, moral and religious spheres with nothing else to fill the gap except, analysis of propositions. Its has produced a � waste land� of mind of which T.S.Eliot�s poem is at once description and, by implication, a denunciation.

 3.     A survey of the course of philosophy in the past shows that philosophy continually faced this impasse. The a priori deductive method took us the lion�s den. At the height of its speculation, it built super � structures of philosophy were led t solipsism and to the feverish denial of metaphysics,

 To save philosophy from this impasse, we have to adopt a synoptic view towards the problems of philosophy. We should realise that reality is complex and life is a many-coloured dome. Idealism was unable to see the wood.  While empiricism could not see the wood in the trees. These were two ways of approaching the problem; but they are not the only ways, nor were the approaches absolute. This is the synoptic outlook. In this sense, philosophy is to see life steadily and see it whole. Broad says � If we do not look at the world synoptically we shall have a very narrow view of it.� He thinks that a purely critical philosophy is arid and rigid.�

      The Jaina view of anekanta comes nearer to this approach. Anekanta consists in a many-sided approach to the study of problem. Intellectual tolerance is the foundation nonviolent attitude.  It emphasizes the many � sidedness of truth. Reality can be looked at from various angles.

          Whitehead�s fundamental attitude in philosophy is essentially the same as the anekanta view of life. Whitehead defined speculative philosophy as the endeavour to frame a coherent, logical, necessary system of general ideas in terms of which every element of our experience can be interpreted.

     We have to note that the function of philosophy is not merely an academic pursuit of reality. It is a way of life, philosophy has had the dual purpose of revealing truth and increasing virtue. Philosophers have sought to provide a principal to live by and purposes to live for. For this practical end, philosophers have striven to achieve a synoptic view of the universe. The consciousness of the finiteness of our being makes us yearn for the beyond, in the spirit of the Upanisads from the unreal to the real, from dakness to light, and from death to eternal life.

     For this, we have to look to the spiritual experience of the great seers. Broad says there is one thing which speculative philosophy must take into most serious consideration and that is the religious and mystical experience of minkind. It is they who are in constant touch with the innermost depth of life and to them we are to look for guidance. Such �enlightened ones� or �sages� are the first- hand exponents of philosophy.