Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Herbert Warren's Jainism

THE UNIVERSE
CONSIDERATION OF ASPECTS, OR WAYS OF KNOWING THINGS
MAN AS HE ACTUALLY IS
Karmas
  CAUSES of Karmas
  MAN AS HE MAY BECOME
  MEANS TO THE END
  STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT (GUNASTHANA)
  FIRST STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  SECOND STAGE of development
  THIRD STAGE of development
  FOURTH STAGE of development: part-1
  FOURTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT: Part-2
  FIFTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  SIXTH TO FOURTEENTH STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
  THE SPIRITUAL TEACHER
  LOVE (DAYA)
  SOILINGS OF THE RIGHT ATTITUDE
  SCALE OF LIVING BEINGS
  MEANS WHEREBY THE RIGHT ATTITUDE MAY BE OBTAINED
  TIME
  THIRTY-FIVE RULES OF CONDUCT
  SYNTHESIS OR RECAPITULATION
  BIBLIOGRAPHY

Karmas


 

5) AYU

The energies which come under this class are those which prevent our having a continuous life in our own soul as pure substance, they are those by reason of which the duration of any particular life period in a particular material body is determined.

They may be compared to fetters preventing the realization of the spiritual continuous life.

There are four kinds of this class of energies namely:

  1. that kind by reason of which we live a certain length of time in the pleasurable condition known as that of the Devas (angels), with fine subtle bodies;

  2. that kind by reason of which we live a certain length of time in the condition where there is no pleasure at all, but pain all the time, and have subtle material bodies;

  3. that kind by reason of which we live a certain length of time in the human condition;

  4. that kind by reason of which we live a certain length of time as animal, insect, bird, fish, work, tree, etc.

Although the length of the life is determined, it is not a given number of years that is fixed; because the life may be fast or slow. It is rather the "quantity" of life than the number of years. It is like water in a sponge, the quantity is a fixed one, but it can be squeezed out quickly as in cases of death by accident.

6) NAMA

According to the Jain Philosophy we are the makes of our bodies; the height, shape, color, tone of voice, gait, etc., are all fashioned as the result of forces which we ourselves have generated in the past and which are in subtle combination with us. These forces are operating all the time in us and on account of them the limbs, organs, and other parts of the body are formed; but these things are done by us in ignorance. And as these forces are combined with the soul in a subtle way and are not separable by a mere mechanically taking apart, it follows that as long as they are in us our bodies will be with our souls. In this class there are one hundred and three energies; they give us the various factors of our objective personality.

There are five kinds of bodies which an entity can have in combination with his soul; and these five bodies two remain with the departing soul at death, right up to the time of his final entrance into everlasting life where he does not take these two nor any material bodies. The five kinds are :

  1. The ordinary gross physical body that we see and touch.

  2. A subtle material body which cannot ordinarily be seen; it is changeable and may be large and then small, have one shape and then another. The beings in the pleasant or angel state have this kind of body; also those in the state where is no pleasure but pain all the time have it.

  3. A body that can be sent by the person to a Master. Only very advanced beings can assume this body; and the idea is that the soul is with it, is with the physical body also, and in the intermediate space all at the same time.

  4. A body which consumes food and, when highly developed and rendered more subtle, can be protruded from the person and burn up the things or bodies.

  5. A body which is made up of all the energies now being classified under eight kinds (karmas). This is changing every moment. And this (karman) and the "fire" body (taijasa) just above mentioned are the two which stay with the soul at death and only leave it at its final liberation.

Of these five we all have the physical, the "fire" body, and the "karmana" body (the fifth, just mentioned). We may or we may not have the subtle body; while only the very far advanced can have the third kind (aharaka).

None of these bodies is conscious. The awareness, consciousness, or knowledge in the person is quality of the invisible, intangible soul having these five bodies or any of them.

7) GOTRA

The energies which come in this class are those which determine the surroundings, family, etc., into which we are born. There are two sub-divisions of this class, namely, the force which takes us to high family circumstances, and that force which takes us into low circumstances.

8) ANTARAYA

The energies here are those which in their operation prevent or hinder our doing what is desirable to be done when we wish to do it or are willing to do it. In the fourth class of energies the inability to act rightly is owing to moral uncleanness and consequent non-perception of what is right; whereas in this eighth class the right action is seen, but is not done; there is some weakness in us.

There are five sub-divisions of this class, namely :

  1. Any force by reason of which we do not give; although it is the right time and place, and we have the means, still we do not give.

  2. Any force by reason of the operation of which we do not make profit. We are fit persons, and follow the usual methods, and yet we do not gain.

  3. Energy by reason of which we do not enjoy thing which can be enjoyed more than once; picture, furniture, scenery, etc. The things themselves are not faulty, and yet we are miserable although surrounded by pleasant things.

  4. Energy by reason of which we do not enjoy those thing which can be enjoyed only once, like food, or drink.

  5. Energy which acts as a hindrance to the will; we should like to conduct ourselves in a certain way, yet we do not. We know the way is right, yet we do not do it; there is weakness.

Thus we have eight classes of energies in us. All these are unnatural to the pure soul, and obscure some quality of it, and the qualities become actual when these foreign forces are removed.

The first, second, fourth and eighth classes cover up the real spiritual natures, namely :

  1. Omniscience,

  2. Generalization to the fullest extent,

  3. Permanent right belief and right conduct, and

  4. Infinite capacity of activity (not omnipotence; no soul can create another).

And the third, fifth, sixth and seventh classes of energies do not cover up the essential natures. When these latter four classes are removed, then the qualities natural to the soul which come our are

  1. Blissfulness,

  2. Continuous life, unbroken by death and birth,

  3. Life as a pure soul all the time, and

  4. Life in circumstances neither high nor low, i.e. equality of status.