The fourth method of knowing a thing or paying respect, is by using the
actual person or thing.
1. When a person has an ideal, he respects it; and the idea of the
ideal is much strengthened by worship. Worshipping the ideal by any of the
above four methods, strengthens the belief and convictions regarding that
2. The second thing that
a person exercising the middle degree of partial self-control would do
every day, would be to render homage to the teacher (guru).
3. He would study
philosophy every day.
4. He would practice
some form of self-control every day.
5. He would practice
some form of austerity every day, both physical and internal. Controlling
hunger would be a physical one; also assuming posture in concentration,
would be a physical one. Concentration would be an internal one.
Austerities are not the line of least resistance.
6. And he would do some
kind of charity every day; but not in the sense where the giver is
superior to the receiver; both are equal. If there is any idea of
superiority, it encourages or feeds pride. Pride obscures knowledge; it is
like a plate in front of the eyes obstructing the view.
TWELVE SPECIAL RULES OF CONDUCT
The twelve special rules, which were
referred to as one of the things done by a person practicing a moderate
degree of self-control are the following:
It is the means of becoming what we are
potentially, that is, the present subject in hand; these special rules are
one of these means. We are injurious beings, we are to become
non-injurious beings. These rules help to that end.
The Sanskrit word for these twelve rules
is "vrata". It is derived from "vr", which means to select, or choose; so,
literally, the word "vrata" means a kind of choice. In the technical or
idiomatic sense in which the word is here used, however, there is also the
meaning of 1) choosing a right course of conduct, 2) exercising the
judgment to see what is the right course out of several possible courses,
and 3) the effort of will implied (conation).
As it is persons of the fifth stage of
development that are now in consideration, who are in the right attitude
of mind towards life and truth, the selection which they will make will be
a right and proper one - persons in a state of delusion and who dislike
truth, will not choose the path of rectitude.
The choosing of a right course of conduct
from among many ways, necessitates the exercise of judgment and
And, as doing this, is not following the
path of least resistance, or living a life where no such choice is made,
there is an effort of will ("virya") or conation.
So, there are the above three meanings to
this word "vrata", as technically used here.
The choice is a very strict matter,
requiring the exercise of much care. And the idea is peculiarly Jain;
there is no oath to a superior, or to a Deity. Neither is it a decree or
command, issued by a Deity to his subjects or creatures. The vedic idea of
a "vrata" is very different.
These twelve special rules or vows may be
divided into three class; the first five vows are called "lesser" vows, as
compared with the more strict vows of the monk. the next three vows (gunavrata)
are of a kind which helps or supports the first five. And the last four
vows are disciplinary (siksavrata); the practice of them forms a sort of
preparation for the monk life.
FIRST VOW (Sthula-Prantipat-Viramana
It is a vow to refrain from killing or
destroying life but not in a literal or strict sense.
We need to know what killing is,-seeing
that the soul cannot be destroyed; and we need to know what particular
kinds or forms of killing shall be refrained from.
WHAT IS KILLING?
It is separating the life forces through
Negligent activates are those which take
place when we are in a state in which we cannot use care and caution. The
term "negligent" is used here in a technical sense. When a person is in
any of the following five states, he does not exercise care and caution,
and his activities, when in these states, are here called negligent.
Pride, through which a person kills; it implies arrogance, and is a state
in which the person ignores the rights of others. The second is any
sense-pleasure, which leads to killing (visaya). The third would be
intense passion, in which state the reason is lost or put aside, as in
wrath and anger; also intense greed, also deceit. The fourth is sleep; we
cannot exercise care and caution when asleep. And the fifth kind of
negligent activity, through which we may separate the life forces of a
living being, is undesirable conversation which leads to passion, lust, or
excitement of the mind, thence to killing, as in duels, and rows.
Destroying life means separating the life
forces through these negligent activities. Now, with regard to what life
forces are. The life forces are the power and means of being able to
touch, i.e., the sense of touch, of taste, smell, seeing, and hearing;
bodily force, force of speech, force of mind, capacity of respiration, and
duration of life.
Different living beings have different
numbers of these ten forces. Beings with only one organ of sense, the skin
or surface, have only four out of these ten forces, viz., the sense of
touch, force of body, respiration, and duration of life (ayuh).
Vegetables, trees, plants, water, air, earth, and fire beings have these
four life forces.
Beings, with only two of the senses, have
six life forces, viz., touch, taste, force of body, force of speech, -
they have a means of communicating among themselves,- capacity of
respiration, and duration of life. Protozoa, and hell beings.
Beings, with only three senses, have the
same six with the addition of smell, making seven life forces. Lice, bugs,
Beings, with only four senses, have the
same seven forces, with the addition of eyesight, making eight. Wasps,
Beings, with nine life forces, have the
same eight, with the addition of the sense of hearing. These beings with
five senses and no mind, are very minute.
Beings, with ten life forces, have the
same nine, with the addition of the force of mind, making ten. Men, fish,
Thus we see the order in which the five
senses are developed. A being, with only two senses, never has only
hearing, with touch, for instance.