Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Herbert Warren's Jainism

THE UNIVERSE
CONSIDERATION OF ASPECTS, OR WAYS OF KNOWING THINGS
MAN AS HE ACTUALLY IS
Karmas
  CAUSES of Karmas
  MAN AS HE MAY BECOME
  MEANS TO THE END
  STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT (GUNASTHANA)
  FIRST STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  SECOND STAGE of development
  THIRD STAGE of development
  FOURTH STAGE of development: part-1
  FOURTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT: Part-2
  FIFTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  SIXTH TO FOURTEENTH STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
  THE SPIRITUAL TEACHER
  LOVE (DAYA)
  SOILINGS OF THE RIGHT ATTITUDE
  SCALE OF LIVING BEINGS
  MEANS WHEREBY THE RIGHT ATTITUDE MAY BE OBTAINED
  TIME
  THIRTY-FIVE RULES OF CONDUCT
  SYNTHESIS OR RECAPITULATION
  BIBLIOGRAPHY

FIFTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT


 

 

The fourth method of knowing a thing or paying respect, is by using the actual person or thing.

 

1.  When a person has an ideal, he respects it; and the idea of the ideal is much strengthened by worship. Worshipping the ideal by any of the above four methods, strengthens the belief and convictions regarding that ideal.

 

2.    The second thing that a person exercising the middle degree of partial self-control would do every day, would be to render homage to the teacher (guru).

3.    He would study philosophy every day.

4.    He would practice some form of self-control every day.

5.    He would practice some form of austerity every day, both physical and internal. Controlling hunger would be a physical one; also assuming posture in concentration, would be a physical one. Concentration would be an internal one. Austerities are not the line of least resistance.

6.    And he would do some kind of charity every day; but not in the sense where the giver is superior to the receiver; both are equal. If there is any idea of superiority, it encourages or feeds pride. Pride obscures knowledge; it is like a plate in front of the eyes obstructing the view.

 

TWELVE SPECIAL RULES OF CONDUCT

The twelve special rules, which were referred to as one of the things done by a person practicing a moderate degree of self-control are the following:

It is the means of becoming what we are potentially, that is, the present subject in hand; these special rules are one of these means. We are injurious beings, we are to become non-injurious beings. These rules help to that end.

The Sanskrit word for these twelve rules is "vrata". It is derived from "vr", which means to select, or choose; so, literally, the word "vrata" means a kind of choice. In the technical or idiomatic sense in which the word is here used, however, there is also the meaning of 1) choosing a right course of conduct, 2) exercising the judgment to see what is the right course out of several possible courses, and 3) the effort of will implied (conation).

As it is persons of the fifth stage of development that are now in consideration, who are in the right attitude of mind towards life and truth, the selection which they will make will be a right and proper one - persons in a state of delusion and who dislike truth, will not choose the path of rectitude.

The choosing of a right course of conduct from among many ways, necessitates the exercise of judgment and discrimination.

And, as doing this, is not following the path of least resistance, or living a life where no such choice is made, there is an effort of will ("virya") or conation.

So, there are the above three meanings to this word "vrata", as technically used here.

The choice is a very strict matter, requiring the exercise of much care. And the idea is peculiarly Jain; there is no oath to a superior, or to a Deity. Neither is it a decree or command, issued by a Deity to his subjects or creatures. The vedic idea of a "vrata" is very different.

These twelve special rules or vows may be divided into three class; the first five vows are called "lesser" vows, as compared with the more strict vows of the monk. the next three vows (gunavrata) are of a kind which helps or supports the first five. And the last four vows are disciplinary (siksavrata); the practice of them forms a sort of preparation for the monk life.

 

FIRST VOW (Sthula-Prantipat-Viramana Vrata)

It is a vow to refrain from killing or destroying life but not in a literal or strict sense.

We need to know what killing is,-seeing that the soul cannot be destroyed; and we need to know what particular kinds or forms of killing shall be refrained from.

 

WHAT IS KILLING?

It is separating the life forces through negligent activities.

Negligent activates are those which take place when we are in a state in which we cannot use care and caution. The term "negligent" is used here in a technical sense. When a person is in any of the following five states, he does not exercise care and caution, and his activities, when in these states, are here called negligent. Pride, through which a person kills; it implies arrogance, and is a state in which the person ignores the rights of others. The second is any sense-pleasure, which leads to killing (visaya). The third would be intense passion, in which state the reason is lost or put aside, as in wrath and anger; also intense greed, also deceit. The fourth is sleep; we cannot exercise care and caution when asleep. And the fifth kind of negligent activity, through which we may separate the life forces of a living being, is undesirable conversation which leads to passion, lust, or excitement of the mind, thence to killing, as in duels, and rows.

Destroying life means separating the life forces through these negligent activities. Now, with regard to what life forces are. The life forces are the power and means of being able to touch, i.e., the sense of touch, of taste, smell, seeing, and hearing; bodily force, force of speech, force of mind, capacity of respiration, and duration of life.

Different living beings have different numbers of these ten forces. Beings with only one organ of sense, the skin or surface, have only four out of these ten forces, viz., the sense of touch, force of body, respiration, and duration of life (ayuh). Vegetables, trees, plants, water, air, earth, and fire beings have these four life forces.

Beings, with only two of the senses, have six life forces, viz., touch, taste, force of body, force of speech, - they have a means of communicating among themselves,- capacity of respiration, and duration of life. Protozoa, and hell beings.

Beings, with only three senses, have the same six with the addition of smell, making seven life forces. Lice, bugs, ants.

Beings, with only four senses, have the same seven forces, with the addition of eyesight, making eight. Wasps, bees, scorpions.

Beings, with nine life forces, have the same eight, with the addition of the sense of hearing. These beings with five senses and no mind, are very minute.

Beings, with ten life forces, have the same nine, with the addition of the force of mind, making ten. Men, fish, birds, animals.

Thus we see the order in which the five senses are developed. A being, with only two senses, never has only hearing, with touch, for instance.