(10) In the tenth stage one is free from all passions except the
subtle greed of the fourth type. Greed afflicts us. However, disturbance
from the passion of greed is only occasional. Except this, there is no
other disturbance. One is passionless and undisturbed. As a
wellwashed red vest retains the slightest tinge of redness, so the
self is affected by the slightest passion of greed. This stage is
called suksma-samparaya. Experiencing the slightest touch of
greed, the soul can go in the direction of subsidence or of destruction
of the karma. Except for such disturbance the soul is
passionless and calm. This state approximates to the state of perfect
conduct (yatha khyata). But, one is still affected in the
slightest degree by the passion of greed. �This subtle greed can be
interpreted as the subconscious attachment to the body even in souls
which have achieved great spiritual advancement.�
The soul which has advanced
in the direction of subsidence of the karma that obscures right
knowledge and right belief and right conduct, can rise to the eleventh
stage of spiritual development. In the tenth stage one has advanced
fairly well and one has in this stage a well-established and perfect
practice of the moral life although sometimes it may be affected by
slight disturbances of a passion like greed.
(11) The eleventh stage is called upasurrta moha, where even
the slightest possible disturbance due to the passion of greed is
overcome and all such disturbances are suppressed. One is free from all
types of passions. This is the highest stage, in which the passions and
other emotional disturbances that afflict the soul are
suppressed. But. these passions are not altogether eliminated, they
remain suppressed through pressure of the effort for the moral life and
one is not altogether free from the enveloping influence of the
karryza. except the deluding kurmas. The stage is, therefore,
called �chadrnastha, as it is just covered by the other
karmas, which, however, are not operative in this stage. Like the
limpid water in the cold season, when the muddy turbulence of the rains
goes to the bottom and leaves the upper surface of a pond clear and
transparent, so one who has suppressed all passions and all the deluding
karmas is able to remain calm and undisturbed and to control his
passions with greater confidence. As all attachments are suppressed, it
is also called vitarega.
(12) it was seen that we can go either the way of annihilation of
kurmas or the way of suppression of the karmas. One who goes
the way of suppression of the karmas gradually destroys the
different types of deluding
karnurs, and the soul goes from the tenth stage of
upasanta kasaya to the
twelfth stage, in which the passions are altogether destroyed. The
twelfth stage is called ksina moha,
or Icsina kasaya.
This is the highest stage of annihilation of the
karmas, while in the
eleventh stage we reach the highest stage of suppression of the
karmas. This is
upasantcc moha. The soul
remains in this stage for one
antarmuhurta. During this time, it is very much purified and
destroys the karmas
obscuring jilana and
darsana and also the
deluding karmas. The
soul is now free from all the four types of
ghnti karmas. All the
passions disappear altogether.
(13) When all the passions and the four types of
ghati karnras are
destroyed, one reaches the thirteenth stage of spiritual development. In
this stage, one is nearer the absolute perfection only with some
impediments in the way. This stage is called
sayoga kevali. The
conditions of bondage like
mithyatva, pramadu, and passions are no longer operative. One
is free from such bondage. However, the other condition, viz., the
bondage of activity, still remains. It is not free from empirical
activity and interest. It is not free from
yoga; therefore, it is
called savoga; but it
has attained omniscience in the form of perfect knowledge and perfect
intuition. The soul has become
kevali. Therefore, this stage is called
sayoga kevali. But one is
still not free from embodied existence, because the four types of
like the vedaniyu which
produces feeling, Zyu which determines the span of life,
nama which determines the
physical structure and nature of the body, and
gotra which determines
one�s individual status in life, are still operative. One is not free
from bodily existence, because the dyu
karma is still to be
exhausted. Persons still go through the threefold activities of body,
speech and mind. But there is no influx of the karma. In this stage, we
find omniscient beings like the
ganadharas and the
samanya kevalins. They attain the enlightenment, but still
live in this world, preaching the truth that they have seen.
This stage can be compared to the stage
of jivanmukti described by
the other orthodox systems of Indian thought. Vedanta recognizes the
state of jivanmukti. Vedanta sara
describes this as the stage of the enlightened and liberated
man yet alive. He is in the perfect state of deliverance. He may appear
to be active in this world in many ways; yet at root, he is inactive. He
is like ~ the man assisting a magician in a magical show, knowing that
all that is shown is merely an illusion of the senses. He is unaffected
by all that happens. Yet, the
prarabdha karma of the individual destiny, which is
responsible for what is, cannot be destroyed even at this stage. It has
to exhaust itself, as these
karma�s produce their effects of continued life. But not
being replenished, they will die away. When Gautama, the Buddha,
attained enlightenment, he wanted his enlightenment not to be known to
others. But Brahma descended to the earth and inspired the Buddha to be
the teacher of mankind, the teacher of the beings of this world and
heaven. This stage is the stage of
jivanmukti. And this is
the stage of sayoga kevali
of the tirtharikaras,
ganadharas and .sumiunya
kevalins when they preached their sublime knowledge to the
people of this world. Zimmer compares this attitude of the
kevalins to the function
of the lamp. Just as the lamp that lights the room remains unconcerned
with what is going on in it, so the
self enacts the role of
�lighting the phenomenal expersonality solely for the maintenance of the
body, not for the pursuit of any good, any gratification of the sense or
any kindly goal.
(14) The final stage of self-realization is the stage of absolute
perfection. It is the stage of absolute liberation without any empirical
activity attached to it. This stage is called
ayoga kevali. Here, all
the remaining karmas
are also destroyed. Before entering into the final stage of absolute
purity and liberation, the soul appears to prepare its way for the
stoppage of all activity both gross and subtle. This stoppage of
activity requires another activity as an instrument. The soul stops the
gross activity of the sense organs and the activity of speech, mind and
body. Then it stops the subtle activity of the mind, speech and body,
physiological processes of respiration and digestion. Then the soul
enters into the third stage of
scakla-dhyana, which is infallible and leads to the final
liberation directly and immediately. At this level
even the subtle physiological activities and the subtle
activities of the mind and body are stopped. The
self becomes as motionless
as a rock, being devoid of all bodily speech and mental activity. This
is the highest stage
sukla-dhyana. With the
eliminated, the highest perfection is reached. Hence this is called
ayntia kevali. The sell�
has attained peaceful perfection. The influx of
karma is completely
stopped and the self is
freed from all karrnic
dust. This state lasts only for a period of time required to pronounce
five short syllables. At the end of this period the soul attains
disembodied liberation. This state
of crvo,;Jo kevali is also
described as the state of
Of the fourteen stages of� self-development thus
described, it is said that the gods and those who dwell in hell can
attain the first four of the
gunasthanas. They can get the vision of Truth, They can know
what is right. But they cannot make the moral effort required for
attaining the truth. The lower animals in this world can rise to the
fifth stage of desavirata.
Moral effort is possible to some extent. We get an account of the
spiritual struggle of the
tirtharikaras through the various forms of existence, in the
forms of lower animals and gods, till they reached perfection. But the
final liberation is only possible in the human existence. It is possible
only for human beings to go through the fourteen stages of spiritual
development and reach the highest state of perfection called
Radhakrishanan says that it is not possible to give a positive
description of the liberated soul. The state of perfection is passively
described as freedom from action and desires, as a stage of utter and
absolute quiescence. It is a state of unaffected peace, since the energy
of past kamna is
extinguished. In this state, the soul is � itself� and no other. It is
the perfect liberation. Zimmer says that, after its pilgrimage of
innumerable existences in the various inferior stratification, the
life-monad rises to the cranial zone of the microcosmic being, purged of
the weight of the subtle karmic
particles that formerly held it down. Nothing can happen to
it any more; for it has put aside the traits of ignorance, those heavy
veils of individuality that are the precipitating causes of biographical
events. In the highest stage of perfection, the individuality, the
masks, the formal personal features are distilled away. �Sterilized of
colouring, flavour and weight, the sublime crystals now are absolutely
pure-like the drops of rain that descend from a clear sky, tasteless and
This is an account of the journey that a person has to make to attain
perfection. These stages of the struggle for self-development are
psychologically significant. It is not possible, here, to give parallels
in psychological terms. Empirical psychology is concerned with the
analysis of the nature and development of the empirical personality.
can be compared to the �me� of
William James. Similarly, it is also possible to give a description of
the antaratma in terms
of the �I� of William James to some extent. Rational psychologists have
shown the possibility of such a study. But psychology is not aware of
the nature of the transcendental self the
parmatman, and the nature
of the development of the empirical self� through various stages to
reach the highest stage of the transcendental se/f. Such a language is
foreign to psychology as a science. But, considered from the point of
view of gunasthanas,
the soul is in the empirical stage, the �me�, before it cuts the
karma granthi and
experiences the first dawn of the vision of the truth in the fourth
stage. After it gets the vision, it makes moral efforts to attain the
truth in the highest perfection. From the fifth stage onwards to the
stage of chandamastha
mural efforts are prominent. The self in these
stages may be called
antaratman, or the spiritual
se/f, or of the �I� of
William James. On the attainment of omniscience, the soul struggles to
free itself from the bond of wordly life. This is the struggle to reach
the highest perfection. The self
in the highest stage of perfection is
in the fourteenth stage of ayoga kevuli,
which is the consummation of
self-realization. This is the transcendental. Self,
a metaphysical concept of the self.
One has to cross the stage of
empirical self and also
of inner self in order
to reach the highest stage of transcendental self
S. C. Nandimath compares the
are synonymous. The
of Jainism have the same significance as the
Virasaivism has six stages, while Jainism presents
fourteen stages through which the soul has to pass before it reaches
perfection. However, the underlying principle in both seems to be the
same. According to Virasaiva thought, the soul possesses ignorance
because of veil of
n. It identifies the
self with the things of
the world. But sometimes, miraculously, there dawns an idea that the
things of the world are not all. This idea increases one�s faith in the
supreme power. This is the starting point. The first stages viz.,
are stages in self-development
wherein the distinction between the self
and the absolute iswara� is
still present. But later stages,
or the stage of self surrender and
aikya .sthala leading
to the final unity, gradually eliminate the distinction between
jiva and isvara,
finally to the fusion of
jiva with the transcendental
self�. Prof. K. G.
Kundanagar, in his
introduction to the Adi-Pvrarra,
also says that the Jaina
gunsthanas may be compared to the
Virasaivism. It would be difficult to accept the interpretation given by
S. C. Nandimath and K. G. Kundanagar because there appears to be
difference in the Jaina and Virasaiva attitudes towards the problem. The
sat-sthalas show the
way towards the union with the Gad in the aikya sthala.
For the Jainas there is no absorption
with the Infinite even in the highest stage of self-realization. The
Jainas are pluralists. They do not admit a reality beyond the individual
selves. In Virasaivism h/rakti is
an important factor for the
realization of the self,
which culminates in the union with
God. It is through bhakti
that the individual journeys through
the stages of purification, self-surrender and the final stage of union.
For the Jainas, bhakti
has no place in the struggle for the realization of the self.
The right attitude, (samyaktva),
is to be coupled with the moral
efforts in the way of self-realization. It is only the individual
self-confidence, the Jainas say, that leads one on to the progress
towards perfection. In my discussions with some scholars of
Virasaivism, I have come to realize the differences between the attitude
of the two schools of thought. However, this problem needs greater
consideration. It is not possible to discuss this problem in detail in
the frame-work of this study.
is not possible to get a thorough understanding of these stages of
development by instruction through books. It is necessary to be absorbed
in the tradition of the religion for a better understanding of the
problem. For instance, it is easier for a Jaina to understand the
significance of gunasthanas than for a non-Jaina. Similarly, it is
easier for a Virasaiva than for others to understand sat-sthalas.
This is an account of the fourteen stages, or gunasthanas, of the
spiritual development. The stages of spiritual development are
psychologically significant, although empirical psychology will not be
able to explain the significance of these stages. We should realize that
�man is not complete; he is yet to be�. In what he is, he is small. He
is occupied every moment with what he can get. But he is hungering for
something which is more than what he can get. Tagore writes, �In the
midst of our home and our work, the prayer rises �Lead me across!� For
here rolls the sea, and even here lies the other shore waiting to be
reached ...... �
of this treatise has been to present some problems of Jaina psychology.
But no attempt has been made herein to build up a science of Jaina
psychology; for, a positive science of psychology, in the sense in which
the term is used to-day, was not possible at that early stage of
knowledge. Psychological analyses were merely shades of the
epistemological problem, and both, in turn, were parts of metaphysical
investigation: However, the psychological theories and problems have
been woven together here to present a coherent picture as far as
The Idea of
The idea of the soul has been a fundamental principle in the rational
psychology of the Jainas. The existence of the soul is a presupposition
in Jaina philosophy. It is a
pratyaksa. The soul is described from the nominal and the
phenomenal points of view. From the noumenal point of view, it is pure
consciousness. Upayoga is the
fundamental characteristic of the soul. Upayoga is
interpreted, in this treatise, is
home in the sense in which McDougall used the term. It is the
purposive force which is the source of all experience. All the three
aspects of experience-the cognitive, the cognitive and the
affective-spring from it.
Cetana is a fundamental
quality of the soul. It is
pure consciousness, a kind of flame without smoke. This consciousness is
eternal, although it gets manifested in the course of the evolutionary
process of life in the empirical sense. The empirical experience arises
out it of the contact of the sense organs with the object.
Thus, upaiyoga is a
driving force which is purposive and which is responsible for
experience. It expresses itself into
darsana. This expression
is possible in the light of cetana.
Cetana is the background of the light of cognition�s-of
The Jainas recognize three species of conscious experience-the
cognitive;, the cognitive and the affective. They make a distinction in
consciousness as knowing, feeling and experiencing the fruits of
karma. As a rule, we have
first feeling, then conation and then knowledge. McDougall�s view of the
primacy of the attractive element in experience and especially in
instinctive behavior may be mentioned in this connection. The Jaina
thinkers were not unaware of the unconscious. The
NaucJi sirtra gives a
picture of the unconscious in the mallati:a
rlustilrlta. The doctrine
of kartna as analysed by
the Jainas comes nearer to lung�s
�Collective Unconscious�. lie says that it is possible to find the
factor in the archetypes of the un
recognizes the peculiar mental force called
which is rendered as
connotes prolonged vision. It is interpreted, in this treatise, as
menace, a psychic force which holds our experience and which later
becomes the basis for new experiences.
The Jaina Theory
The Jainas have developed a systematic theory of mind. Their
approach to the problem has been a fusion of the synthetic and the
analytic points of view. The Jainas say that mind is a quasi-sense
Mind has two phases: the material phase,
material phase is a mental structure and is composed of infinite, fine,
coherent befitting particles of matter meant for the mental function,
expressed in mental processes like thinking. C. D. Broad, in his
Mind and its Place in Nature,
presents a similar view in the distinction of the bodily and psychic
factors of the mind. MciDoug ill also makes a distinction between the
facts of mental activity and the facts of mental structure. He infers
the structure of the mind from its functions.
Regarding the problem of the relation between body and mind,
the Jainas presented a sort of psycho-physical parallelism concerning
the individual minds and bodies. Yet, they were aware of the interaction
between the mental and the bodily. The empirical approach showed them
that there is mutual influence between them. The Jaina theory was an
attempt at the integration of the metaphysical dualism of jiva and
the fact of interaction of individual minds and bodies.
The Sense Organs and Sense Qualities
The Jaina philosophers recognized two varieties of experience:
sensory and extra-sensory. Sensory experience is indirect, it is
conditioned by the sense organs and the mind, while extra-sensory
experience is directly apprehended by the
without the help of the sense organs and the mind. For the sensory
experience, the sense organs are the windows through which the
cognizes the external world. The mind does the function of organizing
the impressions received through the sense organs in order to get a
The Jainas have accepted five sense organs. Motor organs are
not recognized as instruments of experience. The Jaina analysis of the
and the psychic function
has great psychological significance. The physical part
is the organ itself. It has its subdivisions. It can be_ compared to the
modern physiological analysis of the sense organs. The
divided into two parts:
the manifestation of specific sense experience, and upayoga is the
psychic force, the horme, which determines the specific experience.
The problem of the contact of the sense organs with the
external object is psychologically important, although it has a great
epistemological bearing. The Jainas maintain that the visual organ, like
the mind, is
because it does not come into direct physical contact with the object.
The other four sense organs have direct physical contact with the
object. Therefore they are prapvakad. But modern scientific analysis of
the sense organ of sight shows that we should suppose that there is some
form of contact of the eye with the object through the medium of light.
Jaina analysis of the sense qualities coming from the various sense
organs has also great psychological importance. According to the Jainas,
the visual sense quality is classed into five types of colour. Touch is
of eight types, and smell is of two. There are five types of taste.
There are seven fundamental sounds. Comparison with the modern analysis
of sense qualities shows that the Jaina analysis has a psychological
basis although not based on experimental investigation.
the soul is the experiencing agent. It gets two types of experience-the
sensory experience and the extra-sensory experience. The sensory
experience is empirical experience gained through the sense organs and
the mind. It is indirect. The extra-sensory experience is supernormal
experience. The soul gets it directly without the help of the sense
organs and the mind.
The Jaina analysis of sense perception is as complex and it is
significant. The contact of the sense organs with the object, except in
the case of the visual sense, is just a remote condition like time and
space. The sense perception of a particular object does, in fact,
involve psychic factors. The removal of psychic impediments in the
destruction and subsidence of the knowledge-obscuring
a necessary factor in the sense perception. of an object. It is a
negative condition. Selective attention is a positive psychic factor. It
may be compared to the mental set of the western psychologists.
The Jaina description of the stages of sense perception is a
significant contribution to the psychology of perception, although it
gives a predominantly epistemological picture. According to the Jainas,
perception can be analysed into tear stages: (1)
avargraha, the stage of
sensation; (ii) iha,
the stage of associative integration; (iii)
judgment; and (iv) dharana,
is a sensational stage. It is further divided into
vyanjanavagraha, which may
be rendered as the stimulus condition of the sense awareness, or the
threshold of awareness; and
arthavagraha, awareness, or the sensation itself.
Iha involves the mental
factor. It integrates the sense expressions.
Avaya is clear cognition
of the object involving perceptual judgment.
Dharana is retention of
what has been experienced. However, sense perception is a concrete
psychosis involving these processes which are combined and fused to give
a coherent experience. The Jaina description of sense perception gives a
scientific and coherent picture of the psychological element in
perception. This can be compared, to some extent, to the structuralist
view of sense perception.
Other Sources of Sense
There are other sources of getting sense experience. They are: (i)
dharana retention, which
is also a condition of recollection, (ii)
smrti, recollection; (iii)
recognition, which gives determinates to sense experience, and (iv)
anumana, inference, which
is an indirect source of sense experience.
Dharana can be described
as a mental trace or mental disposition
(sarirskswa) by which
experiences cognized in a definite form by
crvsya are retained. Such
retention forms a condition of recall of the experience on a future
occasion. Smrti is a
form in which memory expresses itself. It is ideal revival of a past
experience so far as it is merely reproductive. It arises from the
stimulation of the mental disposition
(vasana), which may be
considered as equivalent to the
samskara of the Jainas. Mental dispositions are the latent
conditions of memory. The emergence of mental dispositions to the level
of consciousness is due to (i) the external conditions consisting of the
environmental factors, and (ii) internal conditions connected with the
cognitive urge. The Jaina description of the conditions of memory may be
compared to the laws of association in psychology. Regarding the
internal conditions, the Jaina description comes nearest to McDougall�s
view of memory. McDougall says that explicit volition, purpose or
intention to remember greatly favours remembering and recollecting. In
order to get clear recollection, it is necessary to remove psychic
impediments like aversion to the object, fear and other painful
experiences associated with it. Such a removal of psychic impediments
was, in a sense, mentioned by the Jainas in terms of the removal of the
veil of karma. But
recollection does not give us a complete picture of memory unless
as a factor operates. The Jainas give prominence to
pratyabhijna as an
important factor in experience. It is a synthetic judgment born of
perception and recollection. The
Jainas make upamana a form of recognition. Psychological analysis of
recognition shows that recognition is a fusion of a percept and an
(inference), is another source of knowledge. Inference has been
recognized by all systems of Indian thought except the Carvaka, as a
source of knowledge. The Jaina analysis of inference has great
psychological value, although it is mainly epistemological. The
distinction between inference for oneself
and inference for others (
very important. Inference for others needs a syllogistic structure for
expression. On this basis, Bhadrabahu contends that the extent of the
constituent propositions depends on the ability of the person to whom it
Inference is a mental process. Validity of inference depends on
psychological and logical grounds. It is based on the perception of the
relation of the minor term to the middle term, and the recollection of
the universal relation between the major and the middle term. McDougall
showed that all deductive reasoning involves �appreciative� synthesis.
Similarly, the desire to know is an important condition of inference.
Miss Stabbing said that inference involves both the constitutive and the
epistemic conditions. The epistemic condition relates to what the
thinker, who is inferring, knows.
The Jainas thought that knowledge due to the sense organs and
the mind is not sufficient to comprehend the nature of reality. They
accepted the possibility of immediate and direct experience without the
use of the sense organs and the mind. This is
pratyaksa. This is
supernormal experience. All schools of Indian Philosophy, except the
Carvakas, accept the possibility of such supernormal experience.
The Jainas give three levels of supernormal perception: (i)
avadhi, (ii) manahparyaya,
kevala. Avadhi may
compared to clairvoyance. It differs with different individuals
according to their capacities. Human beings acquire this form of
experience. But it is natural with beings living in heaven and hell. The
Jainas have described different varieties of avadhi.
Researches in extra-sensory perception show that clairvoyant
cognition may differ with different individuals regarding intensity and
durability of experience. The Society for Psychical Research has found
many instances of this type. The psychic phenomenon called �French
Sensitiveness�, which is sometimes called �psychometry�, may be regarded
as a form
of avadhi, although in
psychometry the sense organs and the mind do play their part.
is cognition of the mental states of others. A certain
physical and mental discipline is necessary for acquiring this
experience. It is only possible for human beings of character,
especially for homeless ascetics. The conditions for the possession of
manahparyaya are that (i)
the human being must have fully developed sense-organs and a fully
developed personality; (ii) he must possess the right attitude; and
(iii) he must be self-controlled and possess extra-ordinary power.
Siddhasena Divakara is inclined to extend the scope of
manahparyaya to lower
animals possessing two or more sense organs. In this connection we may
mention Dr. Rhine�s view that it is possible to find instances of the
possibility of such perception in the case of lower animals, especially
the vertebrates. But the traditional Jaina view does not accept such a
possibility. Two varieties of manahparyaya-rjumati and vipulamati-have
been recognized. Manahparyaya
may be compared to telepathy.
The Jaina analysis of avadhi
shows that avadhi
may be called paranormal while
manahparyaya supernormal cognition.
Avadhi is possible even
for lower animals and beings residing in hell, while man has to acquire
it. But only gifted human beings possess
manahparyaya. Even the
gods residing in heaven may not possess it.
the West, interest in extra-sensory perception is increasing. It is
being investigated on an experimental basis since the establishment of
the Society for Psychical Research. The Duke University is foremost in
this respect. Psychologists like McDougall have said that extra-sensory
perception like clairvoyance and telepathy seems also in a fair way
established. Dr. Rhine has done good work in extra-sensory perception.
Prof. Myers cites many instances of telepathic intuition.
is the highest form of experience. It is omniscience. It
is pure consciousness. It intuits all substances and modes. Nothing
remains to be known in omniscience. The Jaina view of omniscience may be
compared to the Nyaya view of divine knowledge and the Yoga theory of
divine perception, although the Jaina emphasis is on the individual
soul. It is difficult to establish the possibility of omniscience on the
basis of empirical methods of investigation which psychology and the
empirical sciences follow. However, its logical possibility cannot be
The Journey of the
The Jainas believe that the soul has an inherent capacity for
self-realization. The realization of the
self is a realization of
the transcendental self
and not of the empirical self.
The soul has the tendency to free itself from the wheel of
samsara, but this tendency is obscured by the
karma. The attainment of
attitude, is a condition of finding the way to self-realization.
its wanderings in the wheel of
samsara, the soul sometimes gets the vision of the goal of
liberation as also of the way to reach this goal. It feels an impulse to
make efforts to reach this goal. This energy for effort is
yathapravrtta karana. It
is then set on the way to liberation. The struggle consists in the
twofold process known as apurva
karana and anivrtti
karana. The process of
apurva karana enables the
soul to cross the obstacles of
karma granthi while
anivrtti karana leads it to the dawn of enlightenment.
The way to self-realization is long and arduous. It takes many difficult
stages before perfection is reached. The Jainas have mentioned fourteen
stages in the struggle for perfection. They are called
gunasthanas. The first
four stages lead to the right vision
(samyaktva), by removing
the obscuration created by perversity of attitude. It is purely an
intellectual process. It does not involve moral effort for
self-realization. These four stages may be compared to the progressive
development of the attitude of the prisoner in �the parable of the cave�
in Plato�s Republic.
In the struggle for attainment of perfection, the soul undergoes the
vicissitudes of moral life, sometimes going up the stage of moral
development and sometimes coming down. This moral struggle starts with
the fifth stage. The fourteenth
gunasthana is the final stage of self-development. It is
called the state of ayoga kevali.
Thirteenth stage is the
Kaivalya stage, and this
is the final stage and it represents its last phase in life for a few
Dr. Nandimath compares the
guyasthanas to the
sat-sthalas of Virasaivism. Prof. Kundanagar in his
introduction to Adipurana,
gives a similar view. The struggle for perfection in the fourteen
stages of self development has great psychological importance, although
psychology as a positive science will not be able to explain the
significance of these stages.
study of the problems of psychology as presented by the Jainas is useful
for a better understanding of the Jaina philosophy. These problems have
been interpreted in terms of the concepts of western psychology,
especially the rational psychology. An analysis of these problems in the
light at once of ancient Indian thought and Western psychological
thought gives a synoptic view of the nature and value of the problems
that the Jainas presented.
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