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The Tirthankaras


The list of the Tirthankaras of the Jains is given below. In a Jain temple the Tirthankara is the central figure. His image is shown either standing rigidly in the kayotsarga posture or sitting in the yogasana posture. Since the images of the Tirthankaras look alike they have to be distinguished by their respective emblems. The emblem, generally an animal, is depicted below the seat of the Tirthankara. The Tirthankaras are usually accompanied by tutelar deities or attendants, called Yakshas and Yakshinis. The emblems of the Tirthankaras and the names of their attendants in the Digambara system are different, in a few cases, from those in the Shvetambara system. A tree, sometimes, shown with the image also distinguishes the particular Tirthankara. These trees are called Dikshavrikshas, for, it is said that the Tirthankaras gained their highest knowledge while meditating under their respective Diksha-vrikshas.

The emblems and the names of the attendants of the Tirthankaras were finalized near about the 8th century.1


REFERENCE

l Jain, Hiralal, Bharatiya Sanskrti men Jain Dharma ka Yogadana, p. 349.

 

Tirthankara Color Tree Emblem
1. Rishavanatha 
   
(Adinatha)
gold banyan bull
2. Ajitanatha gold shala elephant
3. Shambhavanatha gold prayala horse
4. Abhinandana gold priyangu monkey
5. Sumatinatha
   
(kravncha)
gold shala curlew
6. Padmaprabha red chatra red lotus
7. Suparshvanatha green (D)
gold (S)
shirisa svastika & snakehoods above head
8. Chandraprabha white naga crescent moon
9. Pushpadanta
  
(Suvidhinatha)
white shali makara
10. Shitalanatha gold
(wishing tree)
priyangu Shrivriksha
(D); Shrivatsa
11. Shreyamshanatha gold tanduka rhinoceros
12. Vasupujya red patali buffalo or bullock
13. Vimalanatha gold jambo boar
14. Anantanatha gold ashoka falcon
15. Dharmanatha gold
(thunderbolt)
dadhi vajradanda
16. Shantinatha gold nandi deer
17. Kunthunatha gold bhilaka goat
18. Aranatha gold mango fish (D); nandya varta (S)
19. Mallinatha gold (D);
blue (S)
ashoka water pot or jar
20. Munisuvrata black champaka tortoise
21. Naminatha gold bakula blue lotus
22. Neminatha
    
(Arishtanemi)
black vetasa conch
23. Parshvanatha blue dhataki serpent on seat and 7 snake hood above head
24. Mahavira
    
(vardhamana)
gold shala lion



D-- Digambara

S-- Shvetambara


Tirthankara Yakasha Yakshini
1. Rishavanatha 
   
(Adinatha)
Gomukha Chakreshvari (D); Apratichakra (S)
2. Ajitanatha Mahayaksha Rohini (D); Ajitabala (S)
3. Shambhavanatha Trimukha Prajnapti (D)
Duritarih (S)
4. Abhinandana Yaksheshvara (D); Vajrashrakhala (D) Yakshanayaka (S)
Kalika (S)
5. Sumatinatha
   
(kravncha)
Tamburu Purushadatta (D);
Mahakali (S)
6. Padmaprabha Kusuma Manovega
Shyama
Manogupti (D);  Achyuta
7. Suparshvanatha Varanandi (D);
MatAnga (S)
kali (D); Shanta (S)
8. Chandraprabha Shyama (D);
Vijaya (D.S)
Jvalamalini (D);
Bhrikuti (S)
9. Pushpadanta
  
(Suvidhinatha)
Mahakali or Ajita (Suvidhinatha) (D); Sutara (S)
10. Shitalanatha Brahma,
Brahme- Manavi (D);
Ashoka shvara, or (S) Brahmashanti
11. Shreyamshanatha Ishvara (D); Gauri (D); Manavi Yakset (S) (S)
12. Vasupujya Kumara Chandra Gandhari (D); Chanda (S)
13. Vimalanatha Shanmukha or Karttikeya Vajroti or Vairotya (D); Vidita (S)
14. Anantanatha Patala Anatamati (D);
Ankusha (S)
15. Dharmanatha Kinnara Manasi (D); Kandarpa (S)
16. Shantinatha Kimpurusha (D); Garuda (S) Mahamanasi (D); 
Nirvani (S)
17. Kunthunatha Gandharva Vijaya or jaya (D) Nirvani (S)
18. Aranatha Kendra (D); Ajita (D); Yakshet, Yakshen- Dharani, Dhanadra(S)
19. Mallinatha Kubera Aparajita (D); Vairotya or
Dharanapriya (S)
20. Munisuvrata Varuna Bahurupini (D); naradatta (S)
21. Naminatha Bhrikuti Gandhari (S) Chamunda (D);
22. Neminatha
    
(Arishtanemi)
Sarvahna (D); Gomedha (S)
Ambika (S)
Kushmandini or Dharmadevi (D)
23. Parshvanatha Dharanedra or Padmavati Parshvayaksha
24. Mahavira
    
(vardhamana)
MatAnga Siddhayini or Siddhayika

D- Digambara

S- Shvetambara