Causes of generation of the foreign energies which are
The characteristics which a person has at the present
time are the result of forces generated in the past. The person attracts (asrava)
to himself and assimilates (bandaha) that finest material which is
the substance of these foreign energies, by reason of certain impelling
forces which are already in him. But these impelling forces are only the
instrumental cause of the generation of the above named energies (karmas).
We ourselves are the substantial cause of their generation.
If the attitude of mind is not one of protest or
aloofness from these impelling forces, then fresh energy is not generated.
There are four classes of these impelling forces,
causes, or means whereby we generate the energies above mentioned. These
four classes are :
Lack of self-control, laxity of thought, or of sense
activity. Indulgence of the senses stops consciousness (avirati).
Passion (kasaya) : An unclean moral nature.
All other activities of body, mind, and speech not
included in the first three causes (yoga).
Indolence (Pramad) [not mentioned here]
These four general causes are each sub-divided into
greater detail. There are five kinds of "mithyatva", twelve kinds
of "avirati", twenty-five kinds of "kasaya", and fifteen
kinds of "yoga", making 57 sub-divisions. (Cf. Tattvarthadhigama Sutra
When any or all of these causes precede our actions,
words or thoughts, then we generate the energies under the eight-fold
classification given above. These causes form the ground so to speak in
which the energies are generated. It is like a man having an oiled body
going out into a sooty atmosphere; the oil will be the ground on which the
particles of soot will settle.
The sub-division of these four instrumental causes of
the energies which clog the natural qualities of the soul, is as follows:
There are five kinds, namely :
1. A state of mind in which we stick to a false
belief. We may not know that it is a false belief. If a man does not
examine the doctrines into which he is born, but accepts them without
criticism as to their merits or demerits, he may hold a wrong belief,
and not know it. (abhigraha mithyatva).
2. A state of mind in which the person thinks well,
this may be true, also that may be true, or all religions are true. He
does not go into it. (anabhigraha mithyatva).
3. The state of intentionally sticking to a false
4. The state of doubts as to whether a given course
of action is right or wrong. You stand still. (samsaya mithyatva).
5. Lack of development. The entity sticks to a
false belief or has no belief. Not having developed the faculties of
judgment, conviction, etc., he does not come to a conclusion. And when
in this state his thoughts, words, or actions generate a certain force
obscuring the soul's natural qualities (anabhoga mithyatva).
LACK OF CONTROL
Over the senses and over the mental activities (avirati).
This second of the four impelling forces in us is
sub-divided into twelve kinds. These include lack of control of thoughts
and of the five senses in relation to living beings having the power of
locomotion; and other forms of lack of control.
The five senses are the channels for acquiring
knowledge, and indulging them stops consciousness. If you relish a nice
taste your thought about the thing stops. Thus knowledge is hindered. Also
if inspite of our decision not to think injurious thoughts about a person
we do still think them, from lack of control of the thoughts, then we are
generating energies which will obscure some quality of our soul.
MORAL UNCLEANNESS (KASAYA)
This is the third of the four impelling forces in us,
and it is sub-divided into twenty-five kinds.
They are the same states as the last twenty-five
energies in the sub-division of the fourth class (Mohaniya karma),
viz., anger, pride, deceitfulness, greed, etc. But here the point of view
is not, as there, the nature of the energy, but the energy as an impelling
force under the influence of which we generate fresh energy of the same
undesirable kind, unless we assume an attitude of protest or aloofness and
so do not identify ourselves with anger, etc.
ALL OTHER ACTIVITY OF THOUGHT, SPEECH, OR BODY
This fourth impelling force or cause has a technical
meaning, and is sub-divided into fifteen kinds, relating to thought or
speech that is truthful, untruthful, or mixed; also relating to the
activities of the five different kinds of body it is possible to have
So now we have had a description of man as he is, in
impure soul; we have had an explanation of the instrumental cause whereby
he makes himself what he actually is. This is the law of moral causation;
and thus are implied the two remaining parts of the subject, namely by
avoiding the causes that make him an impure soul.
The law of moral causation (the doctrine of karma)
mentioned above is the law under which come so-called rewards (punya)
and punishments (papa), which are really nothing but effects we
have caused. This law of moral causation is not in any fatalism. Man
suffers or enjoys the consequences of his actions, and the sense of
fatalism comes in only when we overlook the element of choice. Under the
influence of a desire for champagne a man many choose to drink it, though
he may understand quite well that his body will be better served by
choosing milk. The desire does not compel, it is only the instrumental
cause of the man's choice to drink champagne in preference to milk. He has
the power of choosing to drink milk. When this is remembered, then there
is no sense of fatalism in the act performed. The nature of champagne is
such that if he takes it he will experience different consequences from
those of taking milk, and if he does not want the consequence of drinking
champagne all he need do is to leave off. It is no more fatalism than the
fact that water boils if placed over fire; it is simply cause and effect,
and the effect will not follow if the cause is avoided.
Neither is this moral law of causation in any sense
mechanical system: it may be a scientific system, but in mechanical system
there is an absence of consciousness, whereas in this law of moral
causation of the Jain Philosophy, consciousness is an essential factor.
The causes of disaster are consciously and deliberately avoided by those
who wish to remove the impurities from their souls. In this law of moral
causation it is living forces that operate in combination with physical
forces and this is not the case in mechanical causation.
We now come to the third part of the subject, man as he
may become, or potentially is.