Jain World
Sub Categories of Jain Books
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Book of Compassion
 

Introduction

 

Universe

  Consideration of aspects or ways of knowing things
 

Man as he actually Is

 

Karmas

  Causes of karmas
  Man as he may become
  Means to the end
  Stages of development (GUNASTHANA)
  First stage of development
  Second stage of development
  Third stage of development
  Fourth stage of development Part-1
  Love (Daya)
  Soiling of the right attitude
 

Scale of living beings

  Means whereby the right attitude maybe obtained
  Time
 

Thirty-five rules of conduct

 

Fourth stage of development-part-2

 

Fifth stage of development

 

Twelve special rules of conduct

 

Sixth to fourteenth stages of development

  Synthesis or Recapitulatiion
 

Bibliography

  Jain Books
  Catalog of Books in English
  Catalog of Books in Hindi
  Catalog of Books in Gujarati
  List of Books, Topics & Sub-topics and Authors

TWELVE SPECIAL RULES OF CONDUCT




INCIDENTAL

Virtues and vices are states of the individual, and can never be transmitted or transferred from one person to another. Each person develops his own state of virtue, just as he develops his own knowledge. We cannot impart virtue; we cannot impart knowledge. By talking to a person, we supply the means whereby he can develop knowledge.

PARTIAL TRANSGRESSIONS OF THE FIRST VOW

As was the case with the thirty-five rules of conduct, so with these twelve special rules, the practice of them is internal as well as external; and in the partial transgressions given below, it is the internal practice of the rules that is broken, while in the external way the rule or vow is not broken. In all these vows, the chief ideas are partial self-control, and love, and in the partial transgressions, now to be given, this self-control and kindliness are absent.

  1. Angrily or carelessly tying up an animal or a human being. When tying up is absolutely necessary, it should be done so that in case of fire the animal can quickly be undone, and the human being can undo himself. As a matter of fact, the Jain philosophy teaches that a person who practices these vows, ought not to keep such animals as have to be tied up.

  2. Unnecessarily striking or beating or whipping; or doing so on a delicate or tender part of the body.

  3. Cutting or piercing, without a necessary cause. Docking horses' tails would come under this heading.

  4. Overloading an animal or person, through greed or any reason but extreme necessity.

  5. Withholding food or drink, without a real necessary reason.

There are other ways in which this first vow may be partially transgressed, but the above five ways are given as illustrations.

FRUITS

It is the opinion of the Jain Philosophy that the result of the observance of this vow is good health, a strong body, and a strong constitution in the future life. No separation from friends, relatives, or parents. There would be happiness, the legitimate pleasures of life, comforts, long life; he will have a good name, handsome features, and an enjoyable youth.

The results of killing would be the opposite of these things, such as lameness, some incurable disease, separation from friends and relatives, sorrow, short life, and after that, an incarnation in a low state (animal or hell).

SECOND VOW (Sthula-Mrsavada-Viramana Vrata)

Refraining from telling gross falsehoods. Falsehoods are gross, when there is an evil intention and a knowledge that the statement is false.

There are various kinds of falsehoods, for instance, those told about persons, those told about animals, about goods, ground, etc. Another kind is, when we deny the receipts of anything left with us on deposit. Another kind is the giving of false evidence, either in or out of court. These are illustrations of gross falsehoods.

Then there are the following four classes of Falsehoods, namely, the denial of a fact; the affirmation of that which does not exist; calling a thing something other than what it is; statements that are injurious to other, for instance, "Well, Mr. Blindman, how are you?" or such injunctions as "Go and steal."

Lies and falsehoods are spoken by reason of certain states of mind; certain states of mind are forces which impel us to the speaking of falsehoods. The following are such states:

Anger; when angry, we make false statements and may tell even intentional lies.

Pride; deceitfulness; greed; false attachment; hatred or false aversion; laughing or joking; fear; any form of slavery induces fear and people who are under the control of others tell lies through fear. False politeness is a cause of falsehoods; as is also sorrow, - we ignorantly blame others, when we are in grief or sorrow.

The above causes may impel to the telling of such lies as are not possible to be avoided by the layman; it is only gross falsehoods that he undertakes to avoid.

So the vow would be something like the following: "I shall refrain from telling falsehoods about any person, animal, or thing, knowingly, and with the intention of injury to some one." Or, " I shall not with predetermination tell a falsehood when I am conscious of the injury it will do." Or, simply, "I shall refrain from telling gross lies."

And further, the vow may be taken in several ways: for instance, to observe it only in speech, or only mentally, or only bodily, or in all these ways.

Also to observe the vow, only so far as doing it oneself is concerned; or, as far as causing others to tell gross falsehoods, or, as far as consenting to the telling of falsehoods by others is concerned, or all three of these, thus making nine ways of telling gross falsehoods (three times three).

PARTIAL TRANSGRESSIONS

The following are illustrations of some ways in which this vow is partially transgressed:

  1. Rashly, as distinguished from intentionally, making a false accusation; if you rashly call a man a thief when he is not, for instance.

  2. Giving an order that is harmful to others, rashly. If done intentionally, it is breaking the vow.

  3. Seeing two persons talking in secret, to say that you know that secret, and that they are talking against the king or officers, even though as a matter of fact, you have not heard or known their talk - backbiting.

  4. Making a false document, when done carelessly without inquiring into the matter, is a partial transgression for those who take this vow, only so far as speech is concerned. For those who undertake to refrain from telling gross lies, a false document made intentionally is a breach of the vow.

  5. Divulging the secrets of wife (spouse), or friend, unintentionally.

These vows are undertakings to exercise self-control and kindness, so as to refrain from injuring others; and when, as in the above transgressions, there is both rashness or carelessness of speech, and the speech is harmful to some one, then there is partial transgression, even if the actual words used are true; the vow is not fully carried out in such cases.

FRUITS

The results of observing this vow are that people trust you; that you accomplish your best object (otherwise you try to do something and fail); you are liked; and then there are good results which come in the future life.

THIRD VOW (Sthula-Adattadana-Viramana Vrata)

Refraining from gross forms of taking what is not given; theft.

The idea in theft is taking other people's property, without the consent of the owner. The gross form is when the thing taken is considered by its owner to have a value, and the mild form is when the thing taken is not considered by the owner or, generally, to have any value. The mild form is not a breach of the vow, but those who take the vow should try to avoid the mild form of theft also.

The result of the observance of this vow is that you are trusted, and in that way you prosper. Also the character is developed. If the choice not to steal is not made, or if it is soiled, then the result is untrustworthiness, also there is legal punishment, also you cannot carry out your ideas on account of not being trusted. And in the future life you are dependent upon others for your maintenance, and are in a miserable state.

The following are illustrations of partial transgressions of this vow.

  1. Giving orders to thieves to go on with their work; or supplying or manufacturing burglars' tools.

  2. Buying or accepting stolen property; you have possession, without the consent of the real owner, although you did not actually steal it.

  3. Smuggling; also supplying an enemy with goods in time of war.

  4. Using false weights and measures.

  5. Counterfeiting, adulterating, etc.

FOURTH VOW (Sva-Dara-Santosa, Para-Dara-Viramana Vrata)

The fourth special rule for laymen is with reference to the sex passion. It is sometimes spoken of as the act of procreation; but this is not accurate, because there is not that motive, as is shown by the facts that preventatives are adopted, that the act is done in secret, more than once a year, and is acknowledged with shame. In order to show the nature of the passion, the following ten points are given:

In Dr. Nicholson's book on Zoology it is stated that the act of procreation is very wakening to the person, bodily and mentally, and is therefore injurious.

According to the Jain philosophy (and other philosophies also), the creative fluid can be changed into a higher substance which can be used for spiritual purposes, if it is known how to change it. It gives, in fact, a strong will.

There is a special Jain teaching, which is not the teaching of any other philosophical system, that in every act of sexual intercourse nine hundred thousand living beings, very minute, of the shape of the human being, and having the five senses, but no mind, are generated and killed. This must be taken on the faith of the teaching of the "Arhat" or Master; but then he has those eighteen characteristics which were mentioned.

It is an infatuating force which obscures right belief and right action; the virtues are all set aside at the time; also is reason.

It is the opinion of the Jain philosophy that the plans, ideas, intentions, and schemes of a person, who is full of excessive passion do not bear fruit; or if they do that, it is owing to the working of "karma" or foreign energy. The mind is all the time on beautiful women.