His expenses should be in proportion to his income.
When he lives in any country, if there is some
particular, well-known, well-established custom, which does not involve
the breaking of any high principle, such custom should be followed.
He should avoid any undesirable habits such as
meat-eating, or wine-drinking. There is a destruction of infinite minute
life in fermentation.
He should not libel or slander anybody, especially the
king; these are done not with a view to doing good, but with a view to, or
from the motive of, harming the person and are done without any proper
reason. Showing up fraudulent persons is doing good and is not libel or
RULES 15 AND 16
He should keep the company of only pure-hearted
persons, and persons of good conduct, and should not keep the company of
bad persons. The difference between this and rule 8 is that this rule
refers to equals, and rule 8 refers to spiritual superiors.
He should respect the parents. The idea is that they do
so much for us, while we are weak and incapable that we should return
None of the person's actions should be such as to cause
unnecessary ill-feeling to anybody; he should not speak words which would
unnecessarily cause ill-feeling in the mind of another.
He should maintain those who are dependent on him; that
obligation should be fulfilled. He should assign to them their proper work
and should see that they do it right, or else they become harmful to him.
If they get into vices, etc., then he should assume such an attitude
toward them that they may feel that he knows of their wrong-doing. He
should not ignore wrong-doing or let the dependent persons get so vicious
that their condition would lower his wisdom. Avoid a person if very bad;
do not bring up serpents in your house.
Respect and render service to the Master, i.e. the
right ideal; to the guest; and to poor, deserving people. When a person
has an ideal, he respects him; if he does not respect him, he is not that
person's ideal. If the ideal is a wrong one, then the whole life will be
With regard to eating and drinking; the person should
eat and drink at the proper time, in conformity with the nature of his
constitution. But under all circumstances give up excessive eating or
drinking simply because that particular fool or drink is liked.
When he feels that he is getting weak physically, he
should adopt the proper remedy.
He should not travel in countries which are full of
criminals, or where there are other dangers, such as earthquake, plague,
famine, wild animals, lions, tigers, etc. The idea is self-protection.
He should not act in such a way as to become
unnecessarily hostile to the people; he should live in peace with them.
(All these rules are for the beginner and not for those strong in
With reference to the attitude that he should have
towards people who are in a low state of development, his action should be
such that they would feel that there is a higher life than their own; he
should let them feel the influence of the purer life of honesty, for
He should render service to those who have taken
spiritual vows and who are experienced in wisdom and knowledge. He should
do some kind of service to them, and in that way he appreciates the wisdom
and vows, with the idea of, in time, becoming like those persons.
This rule is with regard to the objects of life. There
are four classes of objects of life, and the person who wishes to progress
spiritually should have all these four objects, but in such a way that a
higher one is not sacrificed for the sake of a lower one. If there are
difficulties, as far as the lowest object is concerned, then he should let
it go, and preserve the higher ones.
The four classes of objects of life are as follows:
Doing good; that is to say, the practice of these
The acquisition of the means of enjoyment; i.e.,
Desires. There are desires for a nice house, for
dress, for writing books, etc. This is the lowest of the four objects of
Liberation. This is the highest of the four classes
of objects of life, and some idea of it can be had by remembering what
particular quality of the soul comes out when any of the foreign
energies in any of the eight classes mentioned (in earlier chapters) is
The ordinary man of the world accepts only two of these
four objects, viz., the second and third; getting the means to satisfy
desires, and satisfying desires. When the other two objects are added, the
person's life becomes very different.
In doing anything, he should always consider his
strength and his weaknesses. He should not undertake more than his
strength will allow him to carry out.
He should always attempt to rise higher and higher, so
far as concerns the above mentioned objects of life.
He should do or abstain from doing things that should
be done or should not be done, respectively, at the time. He should stop
doing a thing, if it should not be done at that time.
The layman should hear or read every day the rules of
life, or scriptures. The idea is that the practice of these rules leads
the person to the state of right conviction, right belief, etc., so that,
if, after examining himself, he finds he has not attained the right
attitude to be known by the previously mentioned internal signs,, then he
will know how to reach it, viz., by practicing these rules.
The person who wishes to make spiritual progress should
give up obstinacy in all things. Obstinacy, as here meant, is the doing of
an immoral, wrong, or evil act, with the object of hurting, or defeating
another. He should be yielding and not stubborn.
He should be partial to virtues. He should have all his
energies directed towards the gaining of virtue.
He should be critical towards opinions, beliefs,
philosophies, religions, etc., he should reconcile all the questions and
solve all the doubts arise out of this critical attitude.
We have now seen that in all the 14 stages of
development above the 3rd, the right attitude of mind and a relish of the
truth are present. The signs of this attitude and the means of attaining
it have been given. The next subject is, therefore, the fourth stage of