Shri Tatvartha Sutra.
If you desire to find in the same (grantha) work
practical, critical and intellectual discussions and expositions of all
the Jain Siddhantas (theories), you can find them in Shri Tatvarthadhigham
Sutra or Shri Tatvartha Sutra.
This concise and comprehensive work written by Sri
Bhagwan Umaswati (born 3rd century of the Vikram Era) in Samskrit, in the
form of Sutras or aphorisms, has been accepted and esteemed equally by all
the Jain schools of thought. In this magnificent work, we get not only a
profound and incisive analysis of the philosophical doctrines of Jainism
but also simple, easy explanations, with commentaries, of the principles
of practical life and the spiritual endeavours for everyday life. This
grantha divided into 10 chapters contains about 344 aphorisms. This
grantha contains commentaries for the most part. Please have a glimpse nf
thl? Tatvartha Sutra.
Chapter Sutras Contents
1 35 The path of salvation; a discussion of theories;
Nikshep; knowledge, Naya
2 52 A discussion of thoughts; righteousness, life,
senses, mind, awareness etc.,
(a detailed discussion of these things).
3 18 A detailed description of Hell and its torments. A
islands, seas, mountains, men, earth etc. A description
of the Jain
4 53 Heavenly beings, heaven - life - span - Leshya
etc, - a descriptionof these
5 44 A detailed description of Astikay. Time, Anu and
atoms and minute atoms) and Pudgals and the science of
6 26 A detailed study of the subject of the bondage of
7 34 A discussion of the thoughts and vows of the life
8 26 Bondage, Asrav, Nirjara etc,, explained fully.
9 49 A discussion of the principle of Samvar. A
discussion relating to
Dharma dhyan (a contemplation of Dharma).
10 7 A description of Moksha and Shukladhyan or the
Some Influential Jain Personalities:
In this world, there appeared lakhs of great men who by
means of their energetic and radiant personalities revealed the
influential Jain tradition. Even to mention their names we may require a
huge volume; and if we should describe the greatness of those
personalities, we may take years and years; and we may have to write many
works. Kindly note the names of some great_ men that appeared after
Shraman Bhagwan Mahavir.
The group of Shramanas
Gautam Swami, Sudharma Swami, Jamboo Swami, Shayyambhav
Soori, Bhadrabahu Swami, Sthoola bhadra Swami, Arya Suhasti, Arya Vajra
Swami, Arya Rakshit, Umaswati, Padalipta Soori, Siddhasena Diwakar,
Devardhigani, Haribhadra Soori, Bappa Bhatti Soori, Hemachandracharya,
Hiravijay Soori, Upadhyay Yashovijayji, etc.
The group of Shramanis
Medicants - nuns
Arya Chandanbala, Mrigavati, Priyadarshana, The seven
sisters namely Yaksha etc.. Yakini Mahattara etc.
The group of Shravaks
Pious Jain householders-men
Anand, Kamadev, Nandivardhan, Emperor Shrenik, Emperor
Chetak, Mahamantri Abhaykumar, Emperor Sampruti, Emperor Vikramaditya,
Amaraja, Kumarpal, Mahamatya Kalpak. Shakatal, Vimalshah Vastupal - Tejpal,
Bhamashah, Udayan Mantri, Pethadhshah, Jhanjhanshah, Kavi Vagbhatta, Kavi
Rishabh das, etc.
The group of Shravikas
Pious Jain women
Sulasa - Revati - Jayanti, 16 Sathis (great women)
Anopama devi, Prathamini etc.
The Sects among Jains:
The Jain Dharma is mainly divided into two sects,
namely, Swetambar and Digambar.
(1 ) Idol-worshippers
The Shwetambar idol - worshippers:
The Sadhus and Sadhvis of this sect wear white dress.
They faithfully accept and respect the forty five Agam granthas, and all
the Shastras and commentaries written by the great Acharyas of the past.
Worship and spiritual endeavours are equal for both men and women. The
sect comprises the four groups, namely, (1) Sadhus, (2) Sadhvis, (3)
Shravaks and (4) Shravikas. They believe that they can take food and water
even after attaining Kevaljnan, the highest enlightenment. They
worship and decorate the image of the Paramatma with various auspicious
This sect was started by a noble householder, by name,
Laukashah (born 2001 years after the Nirvana of Mahavir or 1485 A.D.) and
in doing so he gave a practical form to his ideologioal difference with
the Swetambar sect. Shri Bhunaji became the first Sadhu of this Lokamath
sect. The followers of this faith reject the institutions of temples, idol
- worship and installation etc., but they accept only 32 out of the 45
Agamas. Naturally. they cannot accept those Agamas which contain the
principle of idol-worship. When certain definite opinions assumed the
shape of this sect, certain other rules and prohibitions and principles of
practice accumulated around them; yet it has continued to be different
from the other sects. Shri Lavaji Rishi, of this sect (born Vikram Era
1704 or 1653A.D.) first introduced the practice of covering the mouth with
Shri Bhikhanji Swamy belonging to the Sthanakvasi sect
born at Kelava (Rajnagar) in the Udaypur District of Rajasthan, in 1861
A.D. i.e., 2278 years after the Nirvan of Mahavir first propagated this
sect, called the Terapanth. Some principles of the Sthanakvasi sect are in
vogue in the Terapanth but they clearly and definitely prohibit the
principles of mercy and charity.
This sect which believes that nakedness is the only
means to attain salvation was started by a Swetambar mendicant by name
Shivbhuti in Rathvirpur, 609 years after the Nirvan of Mahavir i.e., in 84
A. D. in his attempt to give a practical shape to his ideological
difference with his preceptor Arya Krishnamacharya. The followers of this
sect believe that woman as such cannot attain salvation and that a Keval
jnani does not take in food etc. Besides holding these beliefs, they
totally reject all the Agams of the Swetambars, but they respect the
Granthas written by Shri Kunda Kundacharya (born in the 6th Century) and
those written by the Digambar preceptors who appeared later. The Digambar
Sadhus are naked. They do dot wear or keep any clothes but they carry in
their hands a Kamandal - a special kind of pot and a peacock's feather.
They take food with their hands. (They do not take it off a plate etc ).
They do not believe in decorating the idol and in the various kinds of
worship and decorations of the idols.
Though all the sects mentioned above differ from each
other in respect of practical life, certain codes of conduct, observance
etc., they unanimously accept and believe in such principles as
non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy, non-attachment,
Anekantvad, Atmavad, Karmavad and the arrangement of the universe.
In accordance With the scope of this book, only an
introduction to the essentials of Jainism has been given in it. Certain
things have also been excluded. To understand Jainism fully and
follow ing works have to be consulted.
1.Navkar Mantra - Namaskar Swadhyay (in Sanskrit and
2.Sadhana Marg: Shravak Pragnapti, Dharma Sangraha,
Shraddhavidhi, Dharmabindu Panchashak. Dharma Ratna Prakaran. (all in
Prakrit and Sanskrit).
3. Bhagwan Mahavir: Mahavirchariyam, Kalpasuitra,
Thrishashti Salakapurush Charltra (in Prakrit and Sanskrit)
4. Sangh Vyavastha: Dravya Saptatika (in Sanskrit).
5. Tirth and Jineswar: Shakrastav, Lalitavistara,
Bhagvati Sutra (all in Prakrit).
6. Jain Tirth: Jain Tirth Darshan (in Hindi, Gujarati
7. The organization of the Cosmos Lokaprakash,
Brihatsangrahini, Kshetra Samas (all in Prakrit and Sanskrit) .
8. Navtatva: Jivavichar, Tatvarta Sutra, Prashamrati
(in Prakrit and Sanskrit).
9. Astikay: Tatvarta Sutra; Lokaprakash, Panchastikai.
10. Karma Philosophy: Karma granth, Kammapaydi,
11. Leshya: Bhagvati Suitra, Leshya Kosh, Uttaradhyayan
12. Rebirth: Visheshavashyak Bhashya.
13. Syadvad: Syadvad Ratnakar, Anekant Jayapataka,
Syadvad Maniari, Sammati Tark.
14. Samyaktva: Samyaktva Saptatika, Tatvarta Sutra,
15. Jnan: Nandisutra, Anuyogadwar Sutra.
16. Dhyan: Dhyana Satak, Yoga Sastra, Yogabindu,
1 7. Navpad: Sirival Kaha, (Prakrit) Sripal Ras
18. Bhavna: Shantasundharas (in Sanskrit).
19. Great Men: Jain Pattavali. A history of the Jain
philosophy (1 - 2 - 3 - 4) (Gujarati).
20. Jain Literature: A history of the Jain Literature
(Detailed) Parts 1 to 8 (Hindi).