Single-point of view.
Naya is an aspect of Praman-Naya means choosing one
special aspect of an object which has countless aspects or natures and
describing the object in terms of that aspect. ignoring the other aspects.
In other words, to put it more clearly, Naya is to
describe an object from one, single and separate point of view.
Naya is classified into two kinds; and it is of seven
1. Nishchay Naya
It means understanding the inner nature of an object;
not depending upon exceptions.
2. Vyavahar Naya
Vyavahar Naya is understanding the external nature or
form of an object. making use of exceptions.
The seven types of Naya
Understanding by name
This means understanding a man or a thing by name and
understanding the form and nature of an object on the basis of the name.
For instance we say " My cloth has burnt away" when we see it just
Including much in a little.. or understanding a special
object in an ordinary way.... This is called Sangrah Naya.
Vyavahar Naya means understanding an ordinary thing as
a special thing; and differentiating the object on that basis. An example
of this is to consider a man as noble on the basis of his outward behavior
Understanding on the basis of the present condition.
This Naya implies the tendency to understand an object
as it is at present. Ruju means--simple.... so thinking in a simple
way.... thinking thus: ' What we have done today is right".
Understanding on the basis of sound.
Sound is all-lmportant in this Naya. Hearing the name
of any man or object and understanding the man or the object as the
meaning of the name suggests.
Understanding on the basis of the derivation of words.
Obtaining various meanings on the basis of various
derivations of the sounds or words
The truth as it is
This Naya implies the tendency to believe that an
object functions and produces results as its name indicates; and the three
are complete and identical. For example, calling a man a devotee when he
is showing devotion; not at other times; and not otherwise.
The way of understanding all objects by means of the
collective medium of all these seven Nayas is called Samakiti or
comprehensive vision. All things cannot be done by means of one article.
Many times, we construct something by mixing various things; and we have
to give equal importance to all those things. To build a house, lime,
mortar, cement. stones, clay etc., are as important and essential as
bricks. Only by combining all these things can we build a house.