Kashay is the collective name given to the four Samjnas,
anger, pride, deception and avarice. Kash means Samsar + Aay means gain.
So, Kashaya is that which keeps the soul wandering through Samsar and
which assists the progress of Samsar. In other words, Kashay is a
condition born out of excitement or passion. Nokashay is the name given to
those propensities that cause the emergence and increase of that
excitement or passion. They are of nine kinds.
Hasya : Laughing-laughing without reason.
Rati : Being pleased with trivial things.
Arati : Being displeased and angry.
Bhay : Fearing-being filled with fear.
Shok : Being sorrowful - being grief- stricken.
Jugupsa : Treating with contempt - making faces
Strived : The desire to have contact with man.
Purush-ved : The desire to have contact with woman.
Napumsak-ved: The desire to have contact with woman
The five Samavay- Five causes
There is a deep connection between action and cause.
Without a cause, no action can take place. Samav�y is the name given to
the connection between action and cause. Five kinds of Samavay have been
mentioned. Only by means of these five, the entire drama of the universe
is going on.
1. Kal : Time
2. Swabhav : Nature
3. Bhavitavyata-niyati : Fate
4. Karma : Action
5. Purusharth : Efforts.
They are also known as the five Vadas. Those who give
importance to anyone of them separately, deem it all important and ignore
the others. But the anekantdrishti the comprehensive vision of the Jain
Dharma rejects this absolutely one-sided view or this way of viewing
things from a single point of view. The Jain philosophy views and reveals
the importance of every Samavay from the point of view of multiple-vision;
and considers these five Samavays as the cause for a y action or reaction.
It is not right to deem one of them as important and the other four as
secondary. Without the five, nothing can take place. Anyone of them,
alone, can do nothing. They can do anything only when they act jointly.
Kal - Time
Time is the doer and undoer of the whole universe. It
is the one that makes and mars everything in the universe. The whole
universe is in its power or hold. If we sow seeds to-day they do not give
fruits tomorrow. There is the need for some time; some time should pass.
Only gradually and at the right time can sprouts, buds, branches, leaves
and fruits etc., appear. Every season has a certain duration of time. The
fruit of Karma also appears at the destined time.
Time is not everything. Even if the right time arrives,
certain seeds remain as they are without sprouting. Some women though
mature do not beget children. They remain barren. Who made the thorns
sharp ? Who fills flowers with colors ? Who made some animals cruel ? Who
made them clever and capable of movement ? In this matter, nature is
considered the main cause.
Bhavitavyata - Fate or Destiny
This means fortune or fate. Whatever has been destined
will take place. In this matter, neither time nor nature has any effect or
influence. Whatever has to happen, keeps happening. In this process,
change never takes place at any time. Even if we make all possible
efforts, we cannot save a man's life; he cannot be saved from death. All
this is fatalism.
Karma - Action
The results that we get depend upon our actions. All
the strange things, all the sad things we witness; and all the varieties
we see in life are but the sport of Karma. The soul dances to the tunes of
Karma. We have to experience both the good and evil fruits of Karma.
Purush�rth or effort or endeavour has its special
place. A man cannot attain any result if he depends on Time or Nature or
Destiny or Karma and if he does not put forth efforts. Efforts have to be
put forth. It is not natural to get any result without efforts.
Which is important of these five? Which is the most
efficacious ? The controversy regarding these questions is not of today;
but it has been there for centuries. Countless arguments and refutations
can be heaped for and against these propositions. One who supports one
view deems the other unsound and states so. But the Jain philosophy does
not consider these five from a single point of view; nor does it consider
anyone of them as the only right one, but considers their collective
effect as valid and right. The path of truth can be found only if all the
five are considered as equally existent.