Ajiv- Lifeless things
That which does not have consciousness; which has no
birth or death, which is not bound by Karma; which is not a doer; which
does not experience the result of anything and which does not possess
knowledge or self-realization is called Ajiva or inert or achetana,
that which lacks consciousness.
The Jain philosophy has divided all lifeless things
into the following categories.
Asti means Pradesh and Kay means collection; so Astik�y
means a collection of Pradeshas (aspects). Before understanding these
doctrines the meanings of four technical words should be known. Then, one
can understand those doctrines clearly.
Skandh: It means the full form of a thing.
Desh: Some parts that are attached to the Skandh.
Pradesh: The parts that are attached to the
Skandh but which are inseparable from it.
Paramanu: Extremely minute and microscopic;
they are separated from the Skandh but are not visible to the naked eye.
These words are deeply connected with Astik�y. Skandh,
Desh and Pradesh - these three are found equally in ail, but only in
Pudgal, Paramanu, is present in a special form. In the others, the
Paramanu cannot be separated. The Pradeshas of Dharma, Adharma and Ak�sh
are inseparable. These three are considered to be full and inseparable.
Time is not a collection of Pradeshas, of course, time
is divided into three phases, namely, the past, the present and the
future. At the present, it is the present time; that too, it is present in
the form of a second or a moment. Therefore, it is not a collection of
Pradeshas. Hence, it is not even called Astikay.
The Jiva also is astik�y, because it is in the form of
a collection of countless Pradeshas. The name dravya is given to the six
i.e., Jivastikay and time. In the Jain Dharma, they are famous as
Shaddravyas the six substances. Samsar the cycle of birth and rebirth is
only a collection of these six dravyas We have learned something about
Jiva among the shaddravyas. Now, let us have a look at the other five
Just as Dharma and Adharma or Shubh and Ashubh are
known as propensities in general but here in the Jain philosophical
terminology Dharma is Gati-sah�yak (helping movement) and Adharma is
called Sthiti Sahayak (helping to stay stationary ). This conception is
peculiar to the Jain Dharma.
That which helps the Jiva and Pudgals in their movement
is called Dharm�stik�y. That which is called ether in science, can be
called Dharm�stikay. The tendency of movement is present in all. With its
help, movement occurs in Jivas and inert matter. The fish swims with the
support of water. The condition of the Dharmastikay resembles that of the
fish which moves with the support of water. Dharm�stikay gives support to
all things that move and keep going forward.
The principle which helps in being still, in stopping;
in standing, in sitting, is called Adharm�stikay. The Astik�y helps all
those living and non-living things that can stand, sit; can achieve mental
concentration and firmness and can experience firmness and stillness.
Akas�stikay is the name given to that substance that
gives space for existence. The extent to which the Dharmastikay and
Adharm�stikay are present is called Lok�k�sh. The name Alokakash is given
to the vast and boundless space where those substances are not present.
There are no Jivas or Pudgals or paramanu in Alokakash. There, only
space exists and that is called Akashastikay.
What scientists call matter, the Jain philosophers call
Pudgal. Param�nu is the minutest form of Pudgal. In the Jain philosophy. a
profoundly imaginative and valuable enquiry has been carried out in
respect of Pudgal First of all. the Jain philosophy has given the name
Pudgal to all kinds of sounds, noises, light, shadow, darkness. None of
these things gets completely destroyed at any time; and all those things
firmly exist in Avakash space. The present-day scientific devices like
tape recorders, record players, television, video recorders, telephone,
wireless devices, electronic machines etc., not only show the validity of
this Jain belief but also support and exemplify it.
The entire inert world is the mesh of illusion of
Pudgals. (Puran: making; Galan: marring). Pudgal is the name given to that
which has these two characteristics. Pugdal is the name given to that
which keeps changing every moment and which undergoes variations every