Grihasth dharma; partial renunciation.
In the Jain terminology, the names Shravak or Shravika
are given to those who love and adore Lord Jina's life and message; who
have reverence and devotion for them; who desire to travel on the path of
Salvation shown by Lord Jina, and who put forth efforts towards that end
according to their ability.
The Shravaks and Shravikas need not, like the Sadhus,
renounce totally throughout their lives such things as violence,
falsehood, stealing and sensual pleasures or being possessive. On account
of the need to carry on domestic life a total renunciatlon of these things
is not practical but should not do such things when they can avoid them.
Hence, the Lord has shown them the path of Deshvirati dharma.
The twelve vows, (vratas) for Shravakas.
A Description of the vratas and the prohibitions
(according to possible breaches)
The spiritual welfare of society increases and the
image of the nation grows greater in proportion to the extent to which the
character of the individuals gets tolerant and elevated. The Tirthankar
Paramatma has prescribed twelve vows which are of profound psychological
significance, for the attainment of excellence in character. The codes of
conduct and observance prescribed are not to be considered as merely
useful for practice but are essential and unavoidable.
Atich�r means the errors of commission and omission
(those committed by mistake; those committed knowingly and breaches of
non-observance). Even if there is a partial breach of a vow, it is called
Mainly, there are twelve vows and for each, 5 Atichars
or violations have been mentioned. For the performance of the austerities
fully, even the Atichars should be given up. The 12 vows have been grouped
in three parts.
Anuvrata: Anuvrata means following of vows at a lesser
degree compared to same vows observed by sadhus and sadhvis. They are five
Gunavrata -Gunavrata safeguards anuvratas by increasing
its efficacy and quality. They are three in number.
Shikshavrata -Some Shikshavrata provides a lighter
experience of the life of a Sadhu and also help us to be better prepared
THE FIVE ANUVRATAS
The Sthool Pranatipat Virman Vrat
(the vow of nonviolence)
The ordinary vow for the renunciation of violence.
The vow not to cause violence and pain to any creature
unknowingly or unnecessarily.
Atichar ( Violations ).
1) Binding any creature and putting it in a
prison-house or a pound.
2) The beating and chasing of cattle.
3) Cutting their organs or castrating them.
4) Making them draw or carry heavy loads.
5) Starving them without giving them fodder.
The Sthool Mrishavadviraman Vrat.
(the vow of truthfulness)
The vow not to say a lie in any situation or event
unnecessarily and unknowingly.
Atichor ( Violations ).
1) Making false accusations against anyone or
giving evidence without proof,
2) Throwing blame on others by making public
some secrets of theirs.
3) Divulging the secrets of one's wife or of
those who are intimate.
4) Giving wrong suggestions and opinions.
5) Preparing a false and forged document or
maintaining false accounts.
The Sthool Adattadanaviraman Vrat
(The vow of non-stealing)
The vow not to steal anyone's belongings without cause
1) Buying stolen goods.
2) Getting things stolen; encouraging the act
of stealing and giving shelter to thieves.
3) Breaking the Government rules relating to
customs, taxes and imports and exports; and also smuggling goods.
4) Keeping false weights and measures and wrong
5) Adulteration of commodities.