Shri Amar Muni
4. It is all right if a jiva gets a small or less
comfortable or less auspicious body by the decrease of punya, but how did
such heavy and inauspicious bodies as those of elephants or large fish or
of the inhabitants of hell appear? If there is only a small quantity of
gold, we may get a small vessel but it is of gold; not of clay.
5. In this manner, the difficulty arises in the case of
those who believe only in papa By the increase of papa sorrows may
increase, and by its decrease sorrows may decrease; but how can pleasure
increase? A small degree of sin may be the cause of sorrow, but not of
joy. Let poison be of a small quanity, it cannot increase the health of
The belief that punya and papa are combined is false
6. There is no karma like a combined punya and papa,
because there is no cause that can create such a karma. As the cause of
karma, we can consider the auspicious or inauspicious mental, physical and
vocal yoga activities. Mithyatva etc. is contained in the inauspicious
yoga. But at a time yoga of only one kind, either an auspicious one or an
inauspicious one is present, and by this only one kind of bondage either
of punya or of papa takes place.
Dravya-Yoga: Bhava-Yoga; Dravya Bhava-Yoga
is not mixed
Question: Do we not see the mixed auspicious and
inauspicious yogas? For example, a thought or preaching of rendering
charity arose,. but over-passing the scriptural method and scriptural
formality; or worshipping the paramatma but not according to scriptural
method. Are not these respectively auspicious and inauspicious Manoyoga,
vag-yoga and kaya-yoga (mental, vocal and physical activities).
Answer: No. Yoga is of two kinds: Dravya-Yoga and Bhava-Yoga
The 'Dravya' means helpful substances causing yoga and the activities of
the mind, the voice, and the body. These are the dravya-yoga The
Adhyavasaya (good or bad sentiments) which is the nature of yoga is the
Bhava-Yoga According to the vyavahara-naya (normal vision) there can be a
fusion i.e., a mixture of the auspicious and the inauspicious ones in the
dravya-yoga; but not according to the nischaya-naya (subtle vision).
Because in the Bhava-Yoga there is no such fusion mixture i.e. combination
of auspicious and inauspicious sentiments (Adhyavasaya). Whereas here
there can be only auspicious or inauspicious adhyvasaya. There can never
be such an Adhyavasaya which is of both auspicious and inauspicious nature
at the same time. In the scriptures (Agamas) are shown two auspicious
meditations viz., dharma- dhyana and shukla-dhydna; and the auspicious
lesyas (mental states viz., Tejo lesya, padma lesya and shukla lesya). Two
inauspicious meditations arta-dhyana and raudra-dhyana, and three
inauspicious lesyas (mental states) krisna-lesya nil- lesya and
kapot-lesya, are also described but no auspicious and inauspicious
combined meditation or lesya is mentioned. Even after the meditation,
lesya prevails. The Bhava-yoga is made up of lesya and meditation. It is
not in the form of both auspicious and inauspicious together. Therefore no
bondage in the form of combined punya and papa occurs.
There are no mixed karmas in samkraman of karmas.
Samkraman means intermingling of old karmas into the newly being bound
karmas of the same type. Just old ashata vedniya karma being intermingled
in the newly being bound shata vedniya karma and getting in the form of
shata vedniya karma
Question: In the karma that is auspicious and the karma
that is inauspicious, there is a samkram (internal entry and
intermingling). Is this intermingling not combind karma?
Answer: An auspicious karma arises from an auspicious
sentiment. The previously accumulated inauspicious karmas become mingled
with auspicious karma of the same sort being earned at present. In the
same manner, previous auspicious karmas are mingled with present
Question: In mithyatva mohaniya karma what is the
Answer: After the bondage of mithyatva karma if there
occurs a pure sentiment, then this mithyatva karma gets divided into three
groups. One of them is a pure group namely samyakatva- samkit mohaniya.
This is pure group of Samyakatva Mohaniya. Now if jiva further again
enters mithyatva, that samyakatva mohaniya gets transformed into mithyatva.
In this manner, samkraman does not happen between the main basic karma
prakritis just as vedniya karma is not transformed into mohaniya karma but
it happens between their subordinate forms: just as from shata Vedaniya
karma into 'ashate vedaniya' karma, excepting 'Aayushya karma Between
darshan moha and charitra-moha karmas also 'samkraman does not happen. Now
you see that with the newly bound auspicious karmas like shata Vedniya,
the previously bound inauspicious karmas like ashatta vedaniya karma
(Karma that create disease, agony) mingle or with the newly bound
inauspicious karmas, the previous auspicious ones mingle mutually. This
appears to be a mishra-karma like auspicious and inauspicious both, but
after mingling there remains only one auspicious or inauspicious form, not
both. The karma that mingles disappears; and the karma, with which it is
mingled, remains in its form. For example when ashata form arises; it
means ashata becomes shata. Therefore, there is no karma which is a fusion
of punya and papa
The summary is this: punya and papa are independent
karmas. If they could combine, only excessive happiness for heavenly
beings and only excessive pain for the inhabitants of hell would not
occur. Therefore, as the independent causes of these two are separate
abundances - abundance of happiness and abundance of sorrow. So separate
punya and papa are proved.
7. Moreover in this world we see three varieties good,
evil and different from these two, namely neutral. But the presence of
good or evil is not the absence of each other. Just as sweet, bitter and
tasteless relish; it is not only that the absence of good is evil and the
absence of evil is good but the absence of sweetness is tastelessnes also
not sheer bitterness. Bitterness is an independent taste. If disease
abates, health appears, but not the difference in state like strength. To
get this strength separate medicine must be taken. In the absence of 'durjanata
(ignobility) there might be sajjanata, gentleness (nobility) but not a
lofty kind of nobility. One who commits serious sins earns only papa, but
does not earn even a grain of punya In this manner, even one who executes
a sublime deed earns a very great punya; but it is not the state that one
also earns a little of papa In the same way one who commits horrible
ignoble actions and evil actions, auspicious sentiments and inauspicious
sentiments etc., are not the absent forms of each other, but they are
independent entities. Hence their effects punya and papa also are proved
to be independent.
Some necessary directions regarding punya & papa
A karma that gives good fruit like good colour, taste,
smell touch, etc., is a punyakarma, and one that gives a bad fruit, is
papakarma. These karmas are made up of subtle material particles named
karman vargana. Therefore, they are also subtle not gross. They are also
not like minute atoms, but they are in bulks.
How karma bulks stick to the soul?
They stick to the soul which is smeared with
attachments and hatred, like dust sticking to the body smeared with oil.
The karman particles stick to the soul, except in the middle part, which
is utterly pure, containing eight minute parts called 'ruchak pradesas'.
The karman particles stick to the entire soul except that soul's pure
area, and except the sky occupied by it. The soul and karmas possess such
mutual relation that the soul which is the support for karmas, by means of
its own good or evil sentiments can originate karmas good or evil. At the
same time, these four things, the nature, the duration, the intensity in
fruit, and the bulk of karmas are determined. The effects differ according
to differences in the 'ashraya', refuge. For example it is observed that
the same water falling from sky results in the form of milk in cows, and
poison in snakes. Or the same food, according to the ability to digest
results (becomes converted) into flavour, blood etc. or into excretion,
urine and cough. In the same manner, an auspicious or inauspicious
sentiment (feeling) converts the karman particles respectively into
independent good or evil karmas.
According to the 'tatvarth shastra', there are 46 karma
prakritis (forms) of punya good karmas which comprise samakir-mohaniya' 'hasya,
'rati, 'pumved' in addition to 42 punya karmas like shata vedni
shubha-ayushya nam-gotra (All the remaining eleven are in the form of papa
karmas inauspicious karmas). Subh karma has 46 forms according to the
tatvarth-shastra They include samakit mohanlya, hasya rati and pumveda in
addition to 42 forms according to karma- grantha comprising shatavedaniya,
shubh ayushya, shubhnam, shubhagotrta, etc. It makes a total of 46.
According to the karma grantha, samkita mohaniya, hasya, rati and pumveda
these four are inauspicious karmas, because they cause the jiva to think
contrary and to resort to mithyatva Of these smakita mohaniya makes the
jiva commit errors like doubt in about the form of tattvas, in the words
of the omniscient and at the basic level it is the mithyatva
karma-particle made up of karman pudgal. Hence it is the form of
This explanation given by the Bhagavan Mahavirdeo
brought enlightenment of truth to Achalbhrata. He too accepted the diksa
at the feet of the Bhagavan along with his 300 pupils.