Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
PREFACE
FORWARD
INTRODUCTION
SAPTABHANGI SYSTEM
THE TATTVAS
  THE NATURE OF KARMA (Karma ka swroop)
  ASRAVA
  BANDHA
  SAMVARA
  NIRJARA
  MOKSHA
  STAGES ON THE PATH - GUNASTHANAS
  DHARMA IN PRACTICE
  COMPARATIVE ANTIQUITY OF JAINISM
  SOUL-SUBSTANCE
  Vairagya Bhavana

BANDHA


 

 

(14) Anupurvi, which enables the soul to retain during the moments of transition from one life to another the form of its last incarnation. This is of four kinds, corresponding to the four gait's (conditions of existence), namely:

           (i) Human, (109)

           (ii)Deva, (110)

           (iii)Nark (pertaining to the residents of hells), (111) and

           (iv) Animal (Tiryanch). (112)

 

(15) Agurulaghu, which has reference to the weight of matter, of which any particular body may be made. Literally, the word Agurulaghu means neither light nor heavy, hence it has reference to that energy which is responsible for the manufacturing of the material of the different bodies, which, bulk for bulk, is neither heavy like iron, nor light like cotton-wool. (113)

 

(16) Upaghata, by whose operation are formed such organs as are inimical to the very organism to which they belong e.g., big, bulky belly, long horns, and the like. (114)

      

(17) Paraghata, the energy that makes organs, which might be used for the destruction of others, such as sharp horns, poisonous fags and the like. (115)

 

(18) Atapa, which makes a heat-producing and luminous body, such as that of the prithavikaya Jivas in the solar orb. (116)

 

(19) Udyta, the energy which produces a phosphorescent, that is, luminous, but not heat-producing, organism, e.g., the body of a fire- fly. (117)

 

(20) Vihayogati, the energy which enables one to fly, or move through air. It is either Shubha (grace- full) (118) orashubha (the opposite of graceful). (119)

 

(21) Breathing (uchchhvasa). (120)

 

(22) Trasa, which procures birth in the classes of Jivas above the one- sensed type. (121)

 

(23) Sthavira, which leads to birth in the class of one-sensed Jiva. (122)

 

(24) Badara, which produces a body capable of offering resistance to, and of being resisted by, other bodies. (123)

 

(25) Sukshma, which produces a body incapable of offering resistance to, or of being resisted by, others. (124)

 

(26) Periapt, the power to utilize the particles of matter for the full development of certain physical and mental faculties. (125)

This is of six kinds, namely--

               (a) The power to absorb nourishment,

               (b) The power to build the body from the nourishment absorbed,

               (c) The power to develop physical organs and faculties, including that of sense perception,

               (d) The power to maintain breathing and circulation of blood,

               (e) The power of speech, and

               (f) The power of discrimination, or thinking with the help of the physical organ of thought.

 

(27) Aparyapti, the energy, which does not permit the development of the any of the six parayaptis or powers described under the next preceding head. (126)

 

(28) Pratyeka, which appropriates a body to one soul only. (127)

 

(29) Sadharan, which enables a body to be appropriated by more than one souls. (128)

 

(30) Sthira, the energy which retains the various dhatus and upadhatus in their respective positions in the body. The dhatus are juices, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen; and the upadhatus wind, bile, phlegm, nerves, sinews, skin and the digestive fire. (129)

 

(31) Asthira, the energy which tends to disturb the equilibrium of dhatus and upadhatus. (130)

 

(32) Shubha-Nama-karma is a prakriti, which imparts attractiveness to the limbs of the body. (131)

 

(33) Ashubha-Nama-karma is the energy, which makes the bodily limbs unattractive and offensive to look at. (132)

 

(34) Subhaga-Nama-karma is an energy which makes one the object of love by others. (133)

 

(35) Durbhaga-Nama-karma acts in the opposite way to the Subhaga prakriti. (134)

 

(36) Susvara renders speech agreeable and melodious. (135)

 

(37) Dusvara makes the voice croaky and unpleasant to hear. (136)

 

 (38) Adeya imparts radiance and glow to the body. (137)

 

 (39) Anadeya makes a body devoid of radiance or glow. (138)

 

(40) Yashakirti makes one popular in the world. (139)

 

(41) Ayashakirti operates in the opposite way, and makes one unpopular. (140)

 

(42) Tirthankara-Nama-karma raises one to the supreme status of a Tirthankara (God). (141)

 

VII. Gotra karmas are the two kinds, that which secures one's birth in a noble, influential or prosperous family (Uchcha gotra) (142) and that, which drags the soul into opposite kinds of surroundings (Niche gotra). (143)

  

VIII. Antaraya karmas comprise the following five kinds of karmic energy:

 

      (i) That which interferes with the making of gifts, though we may be willing to do so, (144)

 

      (ii) That which steps in to deprive us of gain, though we might do all in our power to deserve it, (145)

 

      (iii) That which prevents one's enjoying things, which can be enjoyed only once, such as food, (146)

 

      (iv) That which interferes in the enjoyment of things which may be enjoyed in more than once, such as pictures, and (147)

 

      (v) Lack of effectiveness to accomplish anything, though we may do our best to succeed. (148)

 

     It will be seen from the above classification of karma- prakriti that the total number of energies falling under the eight groups is 148, which exhaust the whole range of karmas thought it is possible to divide and sub-divide them still further under many heads. Of these, the number of energies which fall under the description of the Nama karma alone is ninety-three, the remaining fifty-five being divided among the other groups. The number of prakriti of the Ghatia karmas out of these fifty-five is forty-seven, which comprise five of Jnana varaniya, nine of darsana varaniya, twenty-eight of Mohaniya and five of Antaraya, the remaining eight, along with the ninety-three of the Nama karma, are all Aghatia, since they do not prevent to the natural properties of the soul from becoming manifested. It is these 47 energies of the Ghatia karmas, which stand in the way of salvation, and debar us from the enjoyment of our natural attributes --omniscience, bliss, and the like.