First Steps To
SANCHETI ASOO LAL
BHANDARI MANAK MAL
Various aspects of Bondage of Karma
with the soul
(The Doctrine of Karma Part -2B)
Age (AAYU) Karma Bondage -
This Bondage which keeps the soul in the body and determines
the quantity of life for which it will remain there is called the Life Span or
Age or Aayu Karma. In other words a being's body remains alive for the quantum
of life determined by this Karma and dies when this Karma is exhausted. The
quantum of life need not be years or months as like a sponge absorbing water
the quantity of water may be determined but the time may vary. It is compared
with imprisonment broadly. The age may be of two types i.e. (i) Apavartaniya
or the one which may be shortened due to accidents in which case the Age Karma
are exhausted in shorter duration due to untimely (Akal) death. (ii)
Anapavartaniya or the age which will run its full course of length of years
and cannot be shortened.
There are four sub-types of Age Bondage which decide the
quantum of life (not years) the living being will be spending in the
particular type of existence and exhausting the age karma in any one out of
the four types of existence i.e. (i) Hellish existence (ii) Animal existence,
(iii) Human existence and (iv) Godly existence. It may be clarified that the
Age Karma determines only the duration of stay in the particular existence,
the birth therein is determined by Naam Karma-dealt with below.
A salient feature of Life Span or Age Karma is that its
bondage with the soul does not accrue at all times like other Karmas. On the
contrary its bondage occurs at fixed times only. In respect of Gods and
hellish creatures it occurs six months before the death of such beings. For
human beings and animals bondage of future life span occurs when 1/3, 1/9,
1/27 or 1/81 of the existing age remains for the being.
Physique Determining (Naam) Karma Bondage -
This Karma bondage determines the physique or the body that
the soul will occupy. It has, therefore, been compared with a painter like
whom it creates different types of bodies, their forms and shapes, sounds and
smells and determines the soul's abode ranging from the lowest type of
immovable body with one sense to the body of the Perfect beings, the
Tirthankars. As such it has got numerous sub-categories, varying from two to
one hundred three, according to different schools and classification and
sub-classification. There are firstly two main divisions viz. (i) the Happy
Physique Karma (Shubh Naam Karma) and (ii) the Unhappy Physique Karma (Ashubh
Naam Karma). If the being or soul feels happy and satisfied in a particular
physique and its other characteristics, it is considered that it is due to
this Karma. This Karma accrues by sincerity of nature, uniformity in
professing and acting and by removal of discord. The second is Unhappy
Physique Karma (Ashubh Naam Karma) which results in unhappiness and
dissatisfaction in the being from his body, physical features etc. and is a
result of insincerity of one's disposition, diversity in what one says and how
one acts, and a discordful nature.
There are other numerous classifications and sub-divisions
of this Karma and these are listed below -
1. Pind Prakrities - There are fourteen classifications of
these with sixty five (seventy five elsewhere) sub-classifications.
2. Pratayek Prakrities - These are of eight types.
3. Tras Prakrities - These are of ten types.
4. Sthavara Prakrities - These are of ten types.
Thus there are forty two main classes and ninety three
sub-classes (one hundred three elsewhere) of Physique determining Karma. Each
main class with sub details is listed below with its functions (this is
according to Doctrine of Karma in Jain Philosophy by Dr. Glasenapp).
The 14 Pinda-Prakrities with 65 subcategories -
States of Existence (Gati) Four -
1. Deva gati Naam Karma bestows the celestial state of
2. Manusya-gati-naam karma-bestows the human state of
3. Tiryag-gati-naam-karma-bestows the animal state of
4. Narak-gati-naam-karma-bestows the infernal state of
Classes of Beings (Jati) Five -
1. Ekendriya-jati-naam-karma-causes birth as a being with
2. Dvindriya-jati-naam-karma-causes birth as a being with
3. Trindriya-jati-naam-karma-causes birth as a being with
4. Chaturindriya-jati-naam-karma-causes birth as a being
with four senses.
5. Panchendriay-jati-naam-karma-causes birth as a being with
Bodies (Sharir) Five -
1. Audarika-sharira-naam-karma-gives the gross physical body
peculiar to animals and men.
2. Vaikriya-sharira-naam-karma gives the transformation body
which consists of fine matter, a body that changes in form and dimension. The
body exists by nature in gods, infernal beings and certain animals; men can
attain it through higher perfection.
3. Aharaka-sharira-naam-karma gives the translocation body.
This body which consists of good and pure substance and is without active and
passive resistance. It is created for a short time by an
pramatta-samyata-ascetic, in order to seek information concerning intricate
dogmatic questions from an arhat who is in another part of the world, while
his own physical body remains in its original place.
4. Taijasa-sharira-naam-karma gives the fiery body. This
body consists of fire pudgals and serves for digestion of swallowed food. It
can also be used by ascetics to burn other beings or things.
5. Karmana-sharir-naam-karma gives the karman body. This
body is the receptacle for karman-matter. It changes every moment, because new
karman is continually assimilated by the soul and the already existing one is
consumed. Accompanied by it, the jiva at death leaves his body and betakes
himself to the place of his new birth, where the karman body then forms the
basis of the newly produced other bodies.
Chief and Secondary Parts of the Bodies - Three -
The angopanga-naam-karma cause the origin of the chief parts
of the bodies. The fiery and the karman-body have no parts; that is why there
are only 3 angopanga-naam-karmas namely :
1. Audarika-angopanga-naam-karma which produce the chief and
secondary parts of the physical body.
2. Vaikriya-angopanga-naam-karma which produce the chief and
secondary parts of the transformation body.
3. Aharka-angopanga-naam-karma which produce the chief and
secondary parts of translocation body.
The bandhana-naam-karma provide that the newly seized
pudgals of a body are united with those formerly assimilated ones into an
organic entity, as wood sticks through an adhesive substance. According to the
5 bodies there are 5 binding-karmas:
1. audarika-bandhana-naam-karma procures the binding of the
2. vaikriya-bandhan-naam-karma procures the binding of the
3. aharaka bandhana-naam-karma procures the binding of the
4. taijasa-bandhana-naam-karma procures the binding of the
5. karmana-bandhana-naam-karma procures the binding of the
karman body. Instead of five bandhana some adopt 15, by not only taking into
consideration the binding of the single parts of the body to one another, but
also the binding of the parts of one body with one or two others (e.g.
The samghatana-naam-karma cause the pudgals of the different
bodies to bind one another; they scrape them together as a rake gathers
together grass that is scattered about. According to the 5 bodies there are 5
1. audarika samghatana-naama karma procures the flocking
together of the pudgals of the physical body.
2. vaikriya-samghatana-naam-karma procures the flocking
together of pudgals of the transformation body.
3. aharaka-samghatana-naam-karma procures the flocking
together of the pudgals of the translocation body.
4. taijasa-samghatana-naam-karma procures the flocking
together of the pudgals of the fiery body.
5. karmana-samghatana-namm-karma procures the flocking
together of the pudgals of the karman body.
Firmness of the joints - Six -
The samhanana-naam-karma unites the bones of the physical
body with one another. According to the firmness of the joining, 6 karmas are
to be distinguished which produce more or less strong joining of the joints :
vajra-risabha-naraca-samhanana-naam-karma gives an excellent
joining. The two bones are hooked into one another; through the joining a tack
(vajra) is hammered; and the whole is surrounded by a bandage.
1. risabha-naraca-samhanana-naam-karma gives a joining not
so firm as the preceding one, because the tack is missing.
2. naraca-samhanana-naam-karma gives as joining which is
still weaker, because the bandage is missing.
3. ardha-naraca-samhanana-naam-karma gives a joining which
is on one side like the preceding one, whilst on the other the bones are
simply pressed together and nailed.
4. kilika samhanana-naam-karma gives a weak joining by which
the bones are merely pressed together and nailed.
5. sevarta (or chedaprstha) samhanana-naam-karma gives quite
a weak joining, by which the ends of the bones only touch one another.
The samhananas play a great role in Jain dogmatics. Only the
first four make meditation possible (Tattva. IX, 27), and only the best i.e.
the first joining of the joints, permits the highest kind of concentration
which precedes salvation.
Figures - Six -
The Samsthana-naam-karma determine the stature of a being,
that is to say :
1. samacaturasra-samsthana-naam-karma cause the entire body
to be symmetrically built.
2. nyagrodhaparimandala-samsthana-naam-karma causes the
upper part of the body to be symmetrical, not the lower.
3. saddi-samsthana-naam-karma makes the body below the naval
symmetrical and above it unsymmetrical.
4. kubja samsthana-naam-karma makes the body hunchbacked
i.e. hands, feet, head and neck symmetrical but breast and belly
5. vamana-samsthana-naam-karma makes the body dwarf i.e.
breast and belly symmetrical, hands, feet etc. unsymmetrical.
6. hunda-samsthana-naam-karma makes the entire body
The conception of symmetry is explained in the following
way. Imagine a man sitting in the paryanka posture i.e. crossing the legs and
placing the hands over the navel. If the two knees are joined by a line and
from the right shoulder to the left knee, and from the left shoulder to the
right knee, and from the forehead to the hands, straight lines are drawn, one
gets four lines. If these are equal to one another, symmetry is apparent, if
they are not so, one of the other five samsthanas results.
Gods have only the first, infernal beings and jivas who have
been produced through coagulation only the 6th figure and in the case of
animal and men (also of Kevalins) all 6 samsthanas are to be found.
Colours - Five -
1. krsna varna- naam - karma gives a colour which is black
like a raja - patta diamond.
2. nile - varma - naam - karma gives a colour which is dark,
blue green, like an emerald.
3. lohita - varna - naam - karma gives a colour which is red
4. haridra - varna - naam - karma gives a colour which is
yellow like turmeric.
5. sita - varna - naam - karma gives a colour which is
white, like a shell.
Other colours, such as brown etc. are produced by mixing.
black and green are considered as being pleasant, the others as unpleasant
Odours - Two -
1. Surabhi-gandh-naam-karma produces pleasant odours (e.g.
that of camphor).
2. Durabhi-gandha-naam-karma produces unpleasent odours
(e.g. that of garlic).
Tastes - Five -
1. Tikta-rasa-naam-karma gives a bitter-taste (like that of
the nimba fruit).
2. Katu-rasa-naam-karma gives a biting taste (like that of
3. Kasaya-rasa-naam-karma gives an astringent taste (like
that of bibhitaka).
4. Amla-rasa-naam-karma gives a sour taste (like that of
5. Madhura-rasa-naam-karma gives a sweet taste (like that of
The salt taste is produced by a combination of sweet taste
with another. Bitter and biting tastes are considered unpleasant, the others
Touches - Eight -
1. guru-sparsa-naam-karma causes a body to be heavy, like an
2. laghu-sparsa-naam-karma causes a body to be light, like
motes in a sunbeam.
3. mridu-sparsa-naam-karma causes a body to be smooth, like
4. khara-sparsa-naam-karma causes a body to be rough, like
5. sita sparsa-naam-karma causes a body to be cold, like
6. usna-sparsa-naam-karma causes a body to be warm, like
7. snigdha-sparsa-naam-karma causes a body to be adhesive,
8. ruksa-sparsa-naam-karma causes a body to be dry like
Heavy, rough, dry and cold are considered to be unpleasent
touches, the others pleasant.
Anupurvis - Four -
The anupurvi-naam-karma causes that the jiva, when one
existence is finished, goes from the place of death in the proper direction to
the place of his new birth. According to the 4 states of existence (celestial,
human, animal, infernal), there are 4 anupurvi-karma, namely -
Gaits - Two
1. prasasta-vihayogati-naam-karma-causes a being to move in
a pleasant manner, like one finds with oxen, elephants and geese.
2. aprasasta-vihayogati-naam-karma causes an ugly manner of
motion like one finds with camels and asses.
The Eight pratyeka-prakritis
1. paraghata-naam-karma gives superiority over others. It
endows the capability of injuring or vanquishing others; on the other hand, it
prevents one from being injured or overcome by others.
2. ucchavasa-naam-karma-bestows the capability of breathing.
3. atapa-naam-karma causes the body of a being not in itself
hot to emit a warm splendour.
4. uddyota-naam-karma causes the transformation body of the
gods and ascetics, as well as moon, stars, precious stones, herbs and shining
insects to emit a cold lusture.
5. agurulaghu-naam-karma makes a being neither heavy or
light i.e. causes it to possess neither absolute weight nor absolute lack of
6. tirthankara-naam-karma procures the position of a
7. nirmana-naam-karma causes the formation of body i.e. it
causes the members of a being to be in their right place.
8. upaghata-naam-karma causes selftorture. It produces
result that the parts of the body of a being (e.g. the uvula in the throat)
cause it torture.
The Ten trasa-prakritis
1. trasa-naam-karma gives a voluntarily movable body.
2. badara-naam-karma gives a gross body.
3. paryapta-naam-karma causes the complete development of
the organs (Karana) and capacities (labdhi) of nourishment, of the body, of
the senses, of breathing, of speech, and of thought.
4. pratyeka-naam-karma causes the being to possess an
5. sthira-naam-karma causes the teeth, bones, etc. to be
6. shubha-naam-karma causes the parts of the body above the
navel to be beautiful, so that, some one whom one touches with the head is
7. subhaga-naam-karma causes some one to whom one is not
under an obligation to be sympathetic to one.
8. susvara-naam-karma bestows a voice which is melodious.
9. adeya-naam-karma causes that some one is suggestive, so
that his speech meets with approbation and belief.
10. yaskirtin-karma grants honour and glory.
The Ten sthavara-prakrtis.
1. sthavara-naam-karma causes the body (plants and
elementary beings) that cannot be moved voluntarily.
2. suksma-naam-karma gives (to elementary beings) a subtle
body imperceptible to our senses.
3. aparyapta-naam-karma causes that the organs or faculties
of a being do not attain full development, but remain undeveloped.
4. sadharana-naam-karma gives (to plants etc.) a body in
common with others of their species.
5. asthira-naam-karma causes that ears, brows, tongue etc.
6. ashubha-naam-karma causes that all parts of the body,
below the navel are considered to be ugly, so that somebody who is touched by
the foot feels this to be unpleasant.
7. durbhaga-naam-karma makes the jiva unsympathetic.
8. duhsavara-naam-karma makes the voice ill sounding.
9. anadeya-naam-karma makes the jiva unsuggestive.
10. ayashkirti-naam-karma causes dishonour and shame.