First Steps To
SANCHETI ASOO LAL
BHANDARI MANAK MAL
Various aspects of Bondage of Karma
with the soul
(The Doctrine of Karma Part -2A)
A number of questions can arise about
different aspects of BONDAGE OR KARMA BANDHA e.g. what is the result of such
Bondage, does Bondage effect all pradesh of the soul or part only, is the
bondage similar for all souls etc. The answers to these questions throw light
on the process of Bondage and therefore, deserve mention here. It is as a
result of Bondage that the Karma varieties are formed. Just as fodder eaten by
a cow or goat is converted into milk, which simultaneously determines its
taste like sweetness, and other qualities as also its quantity and lastingness
or duration, similarly in respect of Karma the nature (Prakriti) duration (Sithi),
intensity (Anubhag) and quantity (Pradesh) is determined alongwith the
attachment or Bondage. The Karma acquired by the soul are in Sooksham or very
fine form and are formed by infinitesimal pudgals. The soul in its entirety
gets bound by the Karma Pudgal which it draws from all directions but from the
limited area of its (souls) existence only (not from beyond it). However, the
Karma Bandha-Bondage of each soul varies depending upon the difference in its
YOGA activities in body, speech and mind and the Kashyas at that time.
It must have become evident that the Influx
and Bondage (Ashrava and Bandh) as also Sanvar and Nirjara of Karma-with soul
are occurring all the times simultaneously. These are very complex phenomena
that can de gauged exactly by only omniscient beings-the Keval Gyanis. Such
beings can see the interplay of soul and Karma Pudgal like a fruit on one's
palm. Before closing this discussion and going over to the attributes of Karma
it may be recalled that some Karma bondage is good or happy meaning thereby
that they result in worldly prosperity, physical well-being etc., but it is
bondage alright and it results in continuation of transmigration of the soul
in the world and obstructs its final release and Moksha.
Four parts or varieties of Bondage (Bandh)
It has been mentioned above that along with
the process of Karma Bondage by Influx (YOGA) and Passions (KASHAYA) the (i)
Nature (Prakriti); (ii) Quantum (Pradesh); (iii) Duration (Stithi) and (iv)
Intensity (Anubhag) of such Karma Bondage is also determined. The first two
are primarily determined by Yoga as it is on the magnitude or power or
otherwise of the Yoga that the (i) Nature of the Karma Bandh and (ii) Quantum
of Karma absorbed will depend. Again the latter two i.e. (iii) Duration and
(iv) Intensity of Bondage will primarily depend upon the four Kashyas or
passions and their intensity or otherwise as these will provide operating time
and force to the Karma Bondage. This will become more clear from the
subsequent discussion of the subject where we shall examine each of the four
parts of bondage separately viz. (i) Nature, (ii) Duration, (iii) Intensity
and (iv) Quantum.
Nature Bondage (Prikriti Bandh)
The Karma acquired by the soul depend on the
different types of activities of body, speech and mind accompanied by
passions. As a result of the difference in such activities the Karma acquire
different natures. These are broadly divided into eight species of Nature
Bondage or Prikriti Bandh for the sake of categorisation though the nature of
Karma Bondage is of innumerable types as the activities are of innumerable
kinds. These Natures are invisible but can be judged from the effect of Karma
on the living beings. The main eight kinds of Nature Bondage (Prikriti Bandh )
are further divided into the following ninety seven (some authorities give
more types taking sub-classes into count) detailed types which are discussed
Gyanavarniya - Knowledge obscuring Karma
with five sub-divisions.
Darshnavarniya - Perception obscuring
Karma with nine sub-divisions.
Vedneeya - Feeling producing Karma with
Mohaneeya - Deluding Karma with twenty
Aayu - Age Karma with four sub-divisions.
Naam - Physique Karma with forty two main
sub-division, and ninety three (103 also) further sub-divisions.
Gotra - Status Karma with two
Antraya - Obstructing Karma with five
Knowledge obscuring Karma-Gyanavarniya
Knowledge or consciousness is an essential
and distinctive attribute of the soul. This may be specific or general i.e.
knowledge which gives specific information or exact nature of things is Gyan
(as opposed to general idea of things which is Darshan discussed later). The
Karma which obscure or obstruct this attribute of the soul i.e. consciousness
or knowledge (the Gyan) due to its evil effect are known as knowledge
obscuring Karma which are like a bandage on the eyes which obstructs the
sight. Some of the reasons leading to knowledge obscuring Karma are
criticizing and opposing the really knowledgeable or Gyanis, obstructing
acquisition of knowledge by any body and similar activities. It is known that
knowledge is of five types and accordingly this Karma is also divided into
five types-depending upon the types of knowledge these obstruct or obscure.
These are briefly mentioned below :
Sensory-knowledge-obscuring Karma (Mati
Gyanavarniya) - which obstruct the right sensory knowledge derived through
the five senses viz., sense of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch as
also the mind.
Study knowledge- obscuring Karma (Shrut
Gyanavarniya) - which obstruct the right study knowledge.
Remote knowledge - obscuring Karma (Avadhi
Gyanavarniya) - which obstruct the determinate knowledge of remote physical
objects derived directly without the help of sense and mind.
Mind reading knowledge obscuring Karma
(Man-paryay Gyanavarniya ) - which obscure the powers of mind reading which
also may be termed as telepathy broadly.
Omniscience obscuring Karma (Kewal
Gyanavarniya) - which obscure the power of soul to acquire omniscience or
Perception obscuring Karma (Darshanvarniya
The word Darshan here is translated as
Perception to distinguish it from the word Darshan which means faith and
vision as mentioned in the first Sutra of Tatvarth Sutra - "Samyag Darshan,
Gyan, Charitrani Moksha Marg" Hence Darshan or perception here implies general
or non-specific knowledge of things as opposed to specific knowledge which is
meant by Gyan. The Bondage of Karma which obscure, the powers of general
perceptions the soul fall in this category. This general perception is of four
types and the Karma obscuring these four perceptions are the types of
perception obscuring Karma as listed below :
Sight perception obscuring Karma (Chakshu
darshanavarniya) - The general perception which is acquired with the help of
eyes or sight is sight perception and Karma obscuring this power is sight
Non-sight perception obscuring Karma (Achksu
Darshanvarniya) - The general perception which is acquired through the mind
and senses other than eyes is non-sight Perception and Karma obscuring such
powers are called non-sight obscuring Karma.
Remote Perception obscuring Karma (Avadhi
Darshanavaniya) - This Karma obscure general perception of remote physical
objects without the medium of eyes or other sense and the mind (which is
akin to the remote knowledge).
Perfect perception obscuring Karma (Kewal
Darshanvarniya) - Just like Kewal Gyanavarniya Karma, these Karma obstruct
the power of the soul to realise perfect Perception or Kewal Darshan.
In addition there are five types of
Perception- obscuring Karma, which relate to powers of sleep over wakefulness.
These are termed "Vedniya " as against "avaran" of four types discussed above.
These are -
Nidravedniya Darshanvarniya - Karma which
enable such sleep from which one can wake up easily;
Nidra Nidra Vedniya Darshnavarniya Karma -
which make it difficult to wake up from sleep.
Prachala Vedniya Darshnavarniya Karma -
which result into sleep even while standing or sitting.
Prachala Prachala Vedniya Darshnavarniya
Karma - which result in sleep even while walking.
Styanagridhi Darshanavarniya Karma - which
enables execution of different actions during sleep by giving considerable
power during sleep.
These are the nine varieties of Perception
obscuring Karma which is compared with a guard or gatekeeper not permitting
free access to the soul. The reasons for acquisition of this Karma are the
same as those for knowledge obscuring karma, because as mentioned earlier
Darshan is general or non-specific type of knowledge only.
It may again be clarified that though the
name Darshana-varniya is used this Karma does not obscure the attribute of
true faith or vision which is caused by Deluding Karma (Mohaniya Karma ) which
will be explained later.
Feeling Producing Karma or Vedneeya Karma
The Karma bondage which on fruition gives
feeling of worldly pleasure or pain or happiness or unhappiness is called
feeling producing or Vedneeya Karma. This is of two types i.e. (i) The Karma
which produce pleasure or happiness are called Pleasure producing (Sata
Vedneeya) Karma and (ii) those which produce displeasure or unhappiness are
called Displeasure Producing (Asata Vedneeya) Karma.
As a corollary to feeling of pleasure or
pain this Karma provides all means and equipment leading to pleasure or pain.
This is compared with a sharp knife or dagger covered with honey, which is
sweet to taste but can also cut or harm the tongue. The causes leading to this
Karma are the acts leading to harm or hurt to other living beings or providing
means of happiness or otherwise to others by thought, word or deed.
It may be clarified again that this Karma
concerns worldly pleasure (or pain) only and not the ultimate infinite
happiness of the soul or spirit which comes from complete destruction of all
Karma, (including this Karma) on attainment of liberation or Moksha.
Deluding Karma or Mohaneeya Karma
It is well known that Right knowledge, Right
faith and Right conduct form the path of liberation. It has been stated above
that knowledge obscuring Karma obstruct the soul's efforts to acquire right
knowledge. The type of Karma which obstructs or obscures the soul's effort for
achieving Right faith and Right conduct (even right knowledge) is called the
Deluding or Mohaneeya Karma. The effects of this Karma deludes or misleads the
soul and this Karma is so powerful that it is considered the villian of the
piece or the king of all Karma. It is compared with intoxication and like an
intoxicated person the soul under its influence loses power to distinguish
between good and bad, right and wrong and goes astray towards false faith and
false conduct. Its two main divisions are (I) Faith or vision Deluding Karma (Darshan
Mohaneeya) and (II) Conduct Deluding Karma (Charitra Mohaneeya). The former
Karma which obscure Right Vision or Right faith can be further sub-division
into three categories :
Faith or vision Deluding Karma (Darshan
Rationalism Deluding Karma (Samkytav
The operation of this type of Karma though
permitting inclination towards Right vision/Faith obstructs high degree of
right faith which is necessary to eliminate or suppress false faith completely
to pave the way to full realisation of the soul's qualities.
Mixed Deluding Karma (Misra Mohaneeya)
The operation of this variety of Karma
results in uncertain or doubtful state of the faith or vision of the soul
which vacillates between true vision or faith and false vision or faith and
makes it a "Sanshayatma (Doubting Thomas)" as mentioned in the Bhagwat Geeta.
Karma (Mithyatva Mohaneeya)
The operation of this Karma results in
complete lack of true faith/vision; or positive adherence to false faith. This
depends upon whether the development of the beings enables them understanding
or not. As such if the beings are like insects which have no understanding
they will suffer from lack of true faith called Anabhigrahik (Untaught)
Bondage. If the beings are with developed understanding like human beings and
even than they do not have true faith but also have false faith (belief in
false gods, teachers and books) then it will be called Abhigrahik (Taught)
This Karma is so powerful that it brings in
its train all other causes of Bondage of soul viz. undisciplined life (Avirati),
Negligence (Pramad), Passion (Kashya) and Yoga (Influx). As such it completely
overpowers and misleads the soul and not only does it vitiate Right
faith/vision but also obstructs acquisition of Right knowledge and Right
Conduct Deluding (Charitra Mohaneeya)
Conduct Deluding (Charitra Mohaneeya) Karma
are those which obscure or obstruct Right conduct and are further sub-divided
into twenty five categories, sixteen of Passion Deluding (Kashaya Mohaneeya)
and nine of Pseudopassion Deluding (No-Kashaya Mohaneeya) Karma.
Passion Deluding (Kashaya Mohoneeya)
categories of Conduct Deluding Karma
At first the sixteen Passion Deluding (Kashaya
Mohoneeya) categories of Conduct Deluding Karma should be dealt with. The four
Kashyas or Passions are Anger (Krodh), Pride (Maan), Deceit (Maya) and Greed (Lobha)
and these are introduced in the soul by this type of Karma. Each of these
passions is of four gradations and all together make sixteen categories.
The highest grade or extremely severe type
of Anger, Pride, Deceit and Greed which results in such Bondage that the soul
has to go through transmigration in the world for infinite period due to
repeated births and deaths. This is called Infinite Bondage-Anger, Pride,
Deceit and Greed (Anantanubandhi Krodha, Maan, Maya and Lobha) and is of four
types according to four passions. It is like a line engraved on the stone
which cannot be removed.
When the Karma bondage is less severe but
still such that the four passions do not permit adoption of even minor vows (Anuvratas)
of layman of Non-violence, Truth, Non-theft, Continence and Non-covetousness,
this Karma Bondage is called Non-adoption (of vows) Karma of Anger, Pride,
Deceit and Greed (Apratyakhanavarni Karma) and is also of four types.
Slightly less severe than the above are the
four types of Karma bondage pertaining to each of the four Kashaya (Passions)
which permit adoption of minor vows or vows of layman i.e. Anuvratas but do
not permit acceptance of major vows or vows of saints i.e. Mahavratas in
respect of Non-violence etc. and are called Pratyakhanivarni Karma and are
also of the four types viz., Anger, Pride, Deceit, and Greed.
Even lesser in severity are the four Karma
Bondage which may not obstruct acceptance of major vows or Mahavratas but may
cause blemishes and minor breaches in the proper acceptance and implementation
of the major vows of non-violence etc. These are called Sanjvalan Karma
relating to Anger, Pride, Deceit and Greed and are also of four types.
Nine Pseudo-passion (Nokashaya Mohaneeya)
categories of Conduct Deluding (Charitra Mohaneeya) Karma.
While there are four main passions called
Kashayas there are nine Pseudo-passions or sub-passions called No-kashaya
which are attendant upon and lead to the intensification of the four passions
viz. Anger, Pride, Deceit and Greed. These nine are:
Feminine (Stree Ved),
Masculine (Purush Ved)
Neuter (Napusank Ved).
These sub-passions are described below along
with the causes leading to them in brief -
1. Laughter-Deluding (Hasya Mohaneeya) -
Karma Bondage is caused by ridicule of true
religion, poor people and undue loud laughter and results in non-serious
disposition and unjustified tendency towards laughter.
2. Attraction Deluding (Rati Mohaneeya) -
Karma Bondage is caused by non-restraint in life and
indifference in the observance of vows and results in undue attachment with
persons and things worldly.
3. Repulsion Deluding (Arati Mohaneeya) -
Karma Bondage is caused by causing discomfort and
creating obstructions for others, moving in company of un-restrained people
and results in undue repulsion and enmity towards others.
4. Fear Deluding (Bhay-Mohaneeya) - Karma
Bondage is caused by terrorising and creating scare
for others and results in a tendency towards being afraid, cowardly and terror
5. Grief Deluding (Shok Mohaneeya) -
Karma Bondage is caused by unnecessarily grieving
and weeping and making others do the same and this results in a grevious
nature in one's life.
6. Hatred Deluding (Ghrina Mohaneeya) -
Karma Bondage is caused by hating what is useful
like useful advice, useful persons and things. This brings in its turn a
7. Purush Ved (Masculine) Deluding Karma
bondage is caused by showing the inclination towards
8. Stree Ved (Masculine) Deluding Karma
bondage is caused by showing the inclination towards
9. Napusank Ved (Masculine) Deluding
Karma bondage is caused by showing the inclination
towards the neuters
7, 8, and 9 also result in the being showing
tendencies and inclination towards the particular sex in the future.
This brings to end the discussion of twenty
eight types of Deluding (Mohaneeya) Bondage which may appear lengthy but is
necessary due too the importance of this type of karma bondage which is the
most difficult to overcome. It is well known that the senior most learned
disciple of Lord Mahaveer, Gandhar Gautam could not attain Omniscience or
Perfect knowledge (Keval Gyan) due to this Karma and his resultant attachment
(Moha) for Lord Mahaveer and he (Gautam Swami) became omniscient only when he
realised this and gave up such delusion (Moha) after the death of Lord