6) Aayu or life span
As the name suggests, this Karma
determines the life span of any particular being. It is not normally
possible for any being to live longer or shorter than the period fixed by
this Karma. This is irrespective of divine, human, animal or infernal
life. The re are however exceptional cases where persons endowed with
special achievements can reduce the life span by bearing the destined
consequences in a shorter period. This is known as Udirana.
7) Naam or physique
By the operation of this Karma it is
decided what type of body, mind, intellect etc. a living being will have.
What we call Gati or state is also decided by this Karma. Divine, human,
animal or plant life and infernal life are the four states in which the
worldly souls get born from time to time depending upon this Karma.
8) Gotra or status determining
A living being is born in a particular
type of family by the operation of this Karma. One is born in a noble or
high status or religiously oriented family by virtue of good Karmas. By
indulging in evil Karmas, one has to be born in a low status or not rel
igiously oriented family.
B: Sthiti or durations of bondage
Indulgence in defilements is one of
the major factors that create bondage of Karma. Duration of a bondage
depends upon the intensity of defilement at the time of incurring the
bondage. Stronger and intense defilements create bondage of longer
duration and weaker defilements result into bondage of short term
duration. Thus Sthiti of any bondage is subjective and varies from bondage
to bondage. The scriptures however do indicate the maximum and minimum
duration of different types of bondage. The Maximum lim its for all types
of Karmas are super-astronomical and are therefore expressed in Sagaropams
which are almost immeasurable. The lowest of the maximum pertains to life
span bondage which is of 23 Sagaropams. All other types of bondage run
into trillions of Sagaropams. Minimum limits are laid down in terms of
Samaya which is infinitesimal part of a second. The minimum durations of
different types of bondage range from 9 such Samayas to 12 Muhurtas which
amount to 9 hours and 36 minutes.
C: Anubhava or intensity of bondage
Anubhava relates to the strength of
bondage and intensity with which its consequences have to be born when the
Karma matures and becomes operative. That stage is known as Vipak and its
intensity depends upon the degree of defilements that prevailed at the
time of bondage. If the degree of defilement is high, the intensity of
resulting bondage is more acute. In Jain terminology, this type of
bondage, whether of wholesome or unwholesome Karmas, is known as Nikachit
or indelible bondage. It does not recede w ithout extending consequences.
Soul incurring that bondage cannot strip it off without bearing the
consequences. If, however, the degree of defilements, prevailing at the
time of bondage, is low; the resulting bondage is loose. The consequences
of such b ondage at the time of Vipak are relatively light. This type of
bondage can be erased by penance or by undertaking activity that tends to
destroy such weak bondage. This has however to be done before the bondage
D: Pradesh or areas subject to
Pradesh is a very infinitesimal area
that would be discussed in a later chapter. Soul comprises innumerable
such Pradeshas. When a bondage is incurred, it does not necessarily enter
all the Pradeshas of the soul. For instance, when a person gets headache,
his other limbs do not experience the pain. On the basis of theory of
Karma, this phenomenon can be explained by stating that he had indulged in
some unwholesome activity that induced Karma particles to enter only those
Pradeshas of soul that abide in th e forehead. It is not possible to state
which particles of Karmas would be attracted to which parts of soul. They
can be attracted to any parts of soul. No part is immune excepting some
very subtle Pradeshas which are termed as Ruchak Pradesh.
Theory of Karma is acceptable to all
the three Indian philosophies viz. Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The
above is a short description of Karma theory according to Jain philosophy.
It would obviously raise some questions in the minds of readers. We shal l
deal with them in a subsequent chapter. In the next chapter we shall deal
with the cycle of rebirth which is another aspect of the theory of Karma.